Similarity of cooperating parts.
In fraternal cooperation, cooperating parts are on a fundamental level alike.
In egalitarian cooperation, cooperating parts are not alike.
On each level, there exist control mechanisms that handle constituent parts that, having lost their independence, start acting egoistically.
In fraternal cooperation, such internal control mechanisms exist for culling or correcting overly ‘selfish’ genes , cancerous cells, criminal individuals, and bad ideas.
In egalitarian cooperation, mutual dependence functions as a similar control mechanism—breaking cooperation entails an immediate loss.
On every level, there is a surplus of redundant parts, resulting in robustness and resilience.
The constituent cooperating parts do not always reap immediate benefits from the cooperation, but sometimes the cooperation instead benefits some other, underlying unit which is the one that really benefits from the cooperation. All cooperation benefits the copying of the replicators —genes or memes .
Emergent properties, where the whole is more than just the sum of its constituent parts, are a result of specialization in the constituent parts.
Cooperation creates order from disorder by repeating the same procedure over and over.
KeywordsNerve Cell Constituent Part Mutual Benefit Collective Functioning Redundant Part
- Azevedo, F. A. C., Carvalho, L. R. B., Grinberg, L. T., Farfel, J. M., Ferretti, R. E. L., Leite, R. E. P., et al. (2009). Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled-up primate brain. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 513, 532–541.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dawkins, R. (1976). The selfish gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Dawkins, R. (2001). Eulogy for Douglas Adams. September 17, 2001. http://www.edge.org/documents/adams_index.html
- Rees, M. (1999). Just six numbers: The deep forces that shape the universe. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.Google Scholar