Skip to main content


Hallux valgus deformities result from laxity in the first metatarsophalangeal joint. This laxity results in the movement of the first metatarsal head medially, while the proximal phalanx moves into valgus direction. As a result, the great toe can become dysfunctional and painful. Pt usually complains of pain at the medial aspect of the MTP joint and soreness at the medial aspect of the second toe. It is easily identifiable upon observation of the forefoot with obvious deformity at the MTP joint. Imaging x-ray can help for finding osteophyte at MTP and increased intermetatarsal and hallux valgus angles. Treatment is consisted of wearing proper shoes such as nonrestrictive narrow footwear.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Nguyen US, Hillstrom HJ, Li W, Dufour AB, Kiel DP, Procter-Gray E. Factors associated with hallux valgus in a population-based study of older women and men: the MOBILIZE Boston Study. Osteoarthr Cartil. 2010;18(1):41–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Hardy RH, Clapham JC. Observations on hallux valgus; based on a controlled series. J Bone Joint Surg (Br). 1951;33-B(3):376–91.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Nery C, Coughlin MJ, Baumfeld D, Ballerini FJ, Kobata S. Hallux valgus in males – Part 1: demographics, etiology, and comparative radiology. Foot Ankle Int. 2013;34(5):629–35.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Coughlin MJ, Thompson FM. The high price of high-fashion footwear. In: Jackson DW, editor. Instructional course lectures. Rosemont: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 1995. p. 371–7.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Frey C, Thompson F, Smith J, Sanders M, Horstman H. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society women’s shoe survey. Foot Ankle. 1993;14(2):78–81. [Medline].

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Piqué-Vidal C, Solé MT, Antich J. Hallux valgus inheritance: pedigree research in 350 patients with bunion deformity. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2007;46(3):149–54.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Perera AM, Mason L, Stephens MM. The pathogenesis of hallux valgus. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011;93(17):1650–61.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Richardson EF, Donly BG. Disorders of hallux. In: Canale ST, editor. Campbell’s, operative orthopedics, vol. 2. 9th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1998. p. 1621–711.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Wexler D, Grosser DM, Kile T. Essentials of physical medicine and rehabilitation: musculoskeletal disorders, pain, and rehabilitation. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2015. p. 431–3.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Austin D, Leventen E. A new osteotomy for hallux valgus: a horizontally directed V displacement osteotomy of the metatarsal head for hallux valgus and primus varus. Clin Orthop. 1982;157:25–30.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Brian Lee DO .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Lee, B., Choi, J., Lopez, F. (2017). Bunions. In: Kahn, S., Xu, R. (eds) Musculoskeletal Sports and Spine Disorders. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-50510-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-50512-1

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics