ID Cards and Passports

  • Ingo LierschEmail author


In this chapter, we discuss e-ID cards and e-Passports . A number of countries have introduced electronic identity documents, and some other countries are planning the introduction. The reasons generally are requirements for a more secure and automated identification and additional functions such as e-Government. In October 2006 the United States required biometric enabled electronic passports for the Visa Waiver countries. The European Commission set the implementation time frame so that all member states had to implement the facial image requirements by 2006. These decisions led to worldwide introductions of e-Passports . With mandating the Supplemental Access Control (SAC) protocol in 2014, the European Union meanwhile introduced the third generation of electronic passports.


ID Cards e-ID e-Passport Chip ICAO Security Basic Access Control (BAC) Extended Access Control (EAC) Password Authenticated Connection Establishment (PACE) 


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    ICAO DOC 9303 Part 11: Security Mechanisms for MRTDs.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Director Product Marketing, Government Identification, Infineon Technologies AGNeubibergGermany

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