Advertisement

RFID and Contactless Technology

  • Anjia Yang
  • Gerhard P. HanckeEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

An increasing number of ‘contactless’ systems are based on passive Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. A passive RFID token is powered by a transmitted RF carrier, which is also used for bidirectional communication. RFID technology comprises of several standards , which are suitable for different applications. Electronic Product Code (EPC) tags, contactless credit cards, e-passports , and access control are just a few examples of systems that use a subset of this technology. This chapter contains a brief explanation of RFID operating principles along with an overview of prominent implementations and industry standards.

Keywords

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Contactless Cards Near-Field Communication Over the Air (OTA) Deployment Modes Secure Element Relay Attack Cloning ISO 18092 ISO 14443 ISO 15693 

References

  1. 1.
    R. Das. RAIN RFID 2015–2020: Market size, growth opportunities and trends. IDTechEx, 2015.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Stockman. Communication by Means of Reflected Power. Proceedings of the IRE, pp 1196–1204, October, 1948.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    The History of RFID Technology. RFID Journal, December, 2006. http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/1338/1/129/.
  4. 4.
    Smart Card Alliance. Contactless Technology for Secure Physical Access: Technology and Standards Choices. Publication No. ID-02002, October, 2001.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    ISO/IEC 14443. Identification cards – Contactless integrated circuit cards – Proximity cards., 2011.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    ISO/IEC 15693. Identification cards – Contactless integrated circuit cards – Vicinity cards., 2009.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    ISO/IEC 18092 (ECMA-340). Information technology–Telecommunications and information exchange between systems–Near Field Communication – Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1), 2013.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    2014 FIFA World Cup with RFID Ticketing Presents Cautionary Tale. June, 2014. https://www.tsl.com/2014/06/2014-fifa-world-cup-rfid-ticketing-presents-cautionary-tale/.
  9. 9.
    Federal Information Processing Standards. Publication 201-1: Personal Identity Verification (PIV) of Federal Employees and Contractors. March, 2006.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Federal Information Processing Standards. Publication 201-2: Personal Identity Verification (PIV) of Federal Employees and Contractors. August, 2013.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Smart Card Alliance. http://www.smartcardalliance.org/.
  12. 12.
    International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Document 9303 Machine Readable Travel Documents (MRTD). Part I: Machine Readable Passports, Seventh Edition, 2015.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ISO/IEC 7501 Identification cards – Machine readable travel documents, 2008.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bundesamt für Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik. Advanced Security Mechanisms for Machine Readable Travel Documents’ Extended Access Control (EAC). Technical Guideline TR-03110, September, 2007.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    T.S. Heydt-Benjamin, D.V. Bailey, K. Fu, A. Juels and T. O‘Hare. Vulnerabilities in first-generation RFID-enabled credit cards. Technical report, University of Massachusetts Amherst, October 2006.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    EMVCo. EMV Contactless Communication Protocol Specification v2.5. June, 2015.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    EMV Integrated Circuit Card Specifications for Payment Systems-Book 1: Application Independent ICC to Terminal Interface Requirements. v4.3, November, 2011. https://www.emvco.com/specifications.aspx?id=223.
  18. 18.
    K. Finkenzeller, RFID Handbook: Radio-frequency identification fundamentals and applications, Wiley, 1999.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.G. Proakis. Digital Communications, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2007.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.G. Proakis and M. Salehi. Communication Systems Engineering, 2rd Edition, Prentice-Hall, 2002.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    ISO/IEC 18000. ISO/IEC 18000 Information Technology AIDC Techniques-RFID for Item Management – Air Interface, 2010.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. RFID Technologies: Emerging Issues, Challenges and Policy Options, Technical Report EUR 22770 EN, 2007.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marcus Gemeinder. Touch & Travel C NFC based automatic fare collection using a passive infrastructure. NFC Forum: Transport and City Life focus group, 2008.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
    Google announces NFC-based Android Beam for sharing between phones (video). http://www.engadget.com/2011/10/18/google-announces-nfc-based-android-beam-for-sharing-between-phon/, 2011.
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
    ECMA-340 Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1) 3nd Edition, June, 2013. http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-340.htm.
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
    ETSI TS 102 613-V11.0.0. Smart cards: UICC– contactless Front-end (CLF) Interface; Part1: Physical and data link layer characteristics. September, 2012.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    ETSI TS 102 622-V11.1.0 Smart cards: UICC– Contactless Front-end (CLF) Interface; Host Controller Interface (HCI). October, 2012.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
    GlobalPlatforms Proposition for NFC Mobile: Secure Element Management and Messaging. Online whitepaper, GlobalPlatform, April, 2009.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lishoy Francis, Gerhard Hancke, Keith Mayes and Konstantinos Markantonakis. Practical NFC Peer-to-Peer Relay Attack Using Mobile Phones. In: Radio Frequency Identification: Security and Privacy Issues, pages 35–49, LNCS, Springer, 2010.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sun Microsystems, JSR-000118 Mobile Information Device Profile 2.0, https://jcp.org/aboutJava/communityprocess/final/jsr118/index.html, 2010.
  38. 38.
    Lishoy Francis, Gerhard Hancke, Keith Mayes and Konstantinos Markantonakis. Practical Relay Attack on contactless Transactions by Using NFC Mobile Phones. In: Journal of Radio Frequency Identification System Security RFIDsec’12 Asia Workshop Proceedings, pages 21–32, IOS Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Michael Roland and Josef Langer, Cloning Credit Cards: A Combined Pre-play and Downgrade Attack on EMV Contactless. In 7th Usenix Workshop on Offensive Technologies, Washington, D.C., 2013.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    OpenPCD Project. http://www.openpcd.org.
  41. 41.
    rfdump Project. http://www.rfdump.org/.
  42. 42.
    rfidiot Project. http://www.rfidiot.org/.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.City University of Hong KongHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations