Reasoning Under Uncertainty: Towards Collaborative Interactive Machine Learning

  • Sebastian RobertEmail author
  • Sebastian Büttner
  • Carsten Röcker
  • Andreas Holzinger
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9605)


In this paper, we present the current state-of-the-art of decision making (DM) and machine learning (ML) and bridge the two research domains to create an integrated approach of complex problem solving based on human and computational agents. We present a novel classification of ML, emphasizing the human-in-the-loop in interactive ML (iML) and more specific on collaborative interactive ML (ciML), which we understand as a deep integrated version of iML, where humans and algorithms work hand in hand to solve complex problems. Both humans and computers have specific strengths and weaknesses and integrating humans into machine learning processes might be a very efficient way for tackling problems. This approach bears immense research potential for various domains, e.g., in health informatics or in industrial applications. We outline open questions and name future challenges that have to be addressed by the research community to enable the use of collaborative interactive machine learning for problem solving in a large scale.


Decision making Reasoning Interactive machine learning Collaborative interactive machine learning 



We thank our colleague Henrik Mucha who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted this research. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their encouraging reviews.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sebastian Robert
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sebastian Büttner
    • 2
  • Carsten Röcker
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Andreas Holzinger
    • 3
  1. 1.Fraunhofer-Institute of Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation, Application Center Industrial Automation (IOSB-INA)LemgoGermany
  2. 2.Ostwestfalen-Lippe University of Applied SciencesLemgoGermany
  3. 3.Holzinger Group, HCI-KDD, Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and DocumentationMedical University GrazGrazAustria

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