An Improved Data Hiding Method of Five Pixel Pair Differencing and LSB Substitution Hiding Scheme

  • Tzu-Chuen LuEmail author
  • Yu-Ching Lu
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 63)


In 2015, Gulve and Joshi proposed a Five Pixel Pair Differencing and least significant bit (LSB) substitution (FPPD) hiding scheme to improve the pixel-value differencing technique. In their scheme, a cover image is divided into several non-overlapping blocks 2×3 pixels in size. The center pixel in each block is a basic pixel that is used to compute differences between it and the other five pixels. These differences are used to conceal the secret message via the pixel-value differencing hiding method. In their scheme, the embedding capacity is limited by the size of the block. In this paper, we adjust the size of the block to increase the embedding capacity while maintaining the quality of the stego-image. Experimental results show that the embedding capacity of the proposed scheme is higher than that of Gulve and Joshis scheme, especially for a 2×2-sized block.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Chen, J.: A PVD-based Data Hiding Method with Histogram Preserving Using Pixel Pair Matching. Image Communication. 29, 375–384 (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gulve, A.K., Joshi, M.S.: A High Capacity Secured Image Steganography Method with Five Pixel Pair Differencing and LSB Substitution. Graphics and Signal Processing. 7, 64–74 (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gulve, A.K., Joshi, M.S.: An Image Steganography Algorithm with Five Pixel Pair Differencing and Gray Code Conversion. Graphics and Signal Processing. 6, 488–493 (2014)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lema, M.D., Mitchell, O.R.: Absolute Moment Block Truncation Coding and its Application to Color Image. IEEE Transactions on Communications. 32, 1148–1157 (1984)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee, Y.P., Lee, L.C., Chen, W.K., Chen, I.J., Chang, C.P., Chang: High Payload Image Hiding with Quality Recovery using Tri-way Pixel-Value Differencing. Information Sciences. 191, 514–225 (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    NI, Z.C., Shi, Y.Q., Ansari, N.: Reversible Data Hiding. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. 16, 354–362 (2003)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Swain, G., Lenka, S.K.: Pixel value differencing steganography using correlation of target pixel with neighboring pixels. In: 2015 IEEE Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies, pp. 1–6. IEEE Press, Coimbatore (2015)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Swain, G.: Digital image steganography using nine-pixel differencing and modified LSB substitution. Science and Technology. 7, 1444–1450 (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tian, J.: Reversible Data Embedding Using a Difference Expansion. Circuits and Systems for Video Technology. 13, 890–896 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tyagi, A., Changder, S., Roy, R.: High Capacity Image Steganography based on Pixel Value Differencing and Pixel Value Sum. In: 2015 Second IEEE Advances in Computing and Communication Engineering, pp. 488–493. IEEE Press, Dehradun (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wu, D.C., Tsai, W.H.: A Steganographic Method for Images by Pixel-Value Differencing. Pattern Recognition Letters. 24, 1613–1626 (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wu, H.C., Wu, N.I., Tsai, C.S., Hwang, M.S.: Image Steganographic Scheme Based on Pixel-Value Differencing and LSB Replacement Methods. Image and Signal Processing. 152, 611–615 (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information ManagementChaoyang University of TechnologyTaichungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations