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Innovative EC Systems: From E-Government to E-Learning, Knowledge Management, E-Health, and C2C Commerce

Part of the Springer Texts in Business and Economics book series (STBE)


Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:

  1. 1.

    Describe various e-government initiatives.

  2. 2.

    Describe e-government activities and implementation issues including government 2.0 and m-government.

  3. 3.

    Describe e-learning, virtual universities, and e-training.

  4. 4.

    Describe e-books and their readers.

  5. 5.

    Describe knowledge management and dissemination as e-commerce.

  6. 6.

    Describe and discuss online advisory systems.

  7. 7.

    Describe e-health.

  8. 8.

    Describe C2C activities in e-commerce.

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Electronic Supplementary Materials


Automated question–answer (Q&A) 

System used to find answers that match questions asked in a natural language (e.g., English, Chinese).

Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) EC 

Electronic transactions completed between and among individuals.

Distance learning 

Education conducted from home or other place, anytime.


The use of information technology in general, and e-commerce in particular, to improve the delivery of government services and activities in the public sector, such as providing citizens and organizations with more convenient access to government information and services, and to providing effective delivery of public services to engage citizens and businesses partners, as well as improving the performance of government employees.


The transfer of health resources and health care by electronic means.


The online delivery of educational materials and methods using information technologies, for the purposes of learning, teaching, training, or gaining knowledge at anytime, and at many different locations.

Electronic book (e-book) 

A book in digital format that can be read on a computer screen, including mobile devices (e.g., a tablet, iPhone), or on a dedicated device known as an e-reader.

Expert/expertise location systems (ELS) 

Interactive computerized systems that help employees locate experts within their organization in order to get help in solving specific, critical business or technical problems in a short time.

Government 2.0 

The employment of social media tools, new business models, and embracing social networks and user participation, government agencies can raise the effectiveness of their online activities to meet users’ needs at a reasonable cost.

Government-to-business (G2B) 

E-government category that works both ways: government-to-business and business-to-government. Thus, G2B refers to activities where the government sells products to businesses or provides businesses with services and vice versa.

Government-to-citizens (G2C) 

E-government category that includes all the interactions between a government and its citizens that take place electronically.

Government-to-employees (G2E) 

E-government category that includes activities between the government and their employees.

Government-to-government (G2G) 

E-government category that includes EC activities between different units of governments, including those within one governmental body. Many of these are aimed at improving the effectiveness and the efficiency of the government operation.

Knowledge management (KM) 

The process of capturing or creating knowledge, storing it, updating it constantly, disseminating it, and using it whenever necessary.

Learning management system (LMS ) 

Software applications for managing e-training and e-learning programs including content, scheduling, delivery tips, and so forth.

Mobile government (m-government) 

The implementation of e-government applications using wireless platforms.

M-learning (mobile learning) 

Refers to e-learning or other forms of education using mobile devices.

Social learning 

Learning, training, and knowledge sharing in social networks and/or facilitated by social software tools.

Virtual university 

Online universities where students take classes from home via the Internet.

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Turban, E., Whiteside, J., King, D., Outland, J. (2017). Innovative EC Systems: From E-Government to E-Learning, Knowledge Management, E-Health, and C2C Commerce. In: Introduction to Electronic Commerce and Social Commerce. Springer Texts in Business and Economics. Springer, Cham.

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