# Membranes, Plates, and Microphones

• Steven L. Garrett
Chapter
Part of the Graduate Texts in Physics book series (GTP)

## Abstract

This is the final chapter in Part I of this textbook that addresses vibration. In this chapter, we will apply the techniques developed thus far to two-dimensional vibrating surfaces. In Part II, we begin our investigations into waves in fluids. This final vibrations chapter is then appropriately transitional, since most waves that are produced in fluids result from the vibrations of two-dimensional surfaces. All acoustical stringed musical instruments include some mechanism to transfer the vibration of the string to a two-dimensional surface, whether that is the sounding board of a piano, autoharp, or dulcimer; the body of a guitar, mandolin, or some member of the violin family; or the drumhead of a banjo or erhu. Strings are very inefficient in their ability to couple their vibrations to the surrounding fluid medium; two-dimensional surfaces are quite a good deal more efficient. Of course, drums of all kinds make sound due to the vibration of a membrane. Obviously, loudspeakers create sound in the air by the vibrations of a two-dimensional piston—there are no electrodynamic loudspeakers (see Sect. ) that have only voice coils with no cone and/or dome attached.

## Keywords

Normal Mode Mode Shape Nodal Line Polarization Voltage Adiabatic Invariance
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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