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Flow Control Devices for Wind Turbines

  • Iñigo AramendiaEmail author
  • Unai Fernandez-Gamiz
  • Jose Antonio Ramos-Hernanz
  • Javier Sancho
  • Jose Manuel Lopez-Guede
  • Ekaitz Zulueta
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Energy book series (LNEN, volume 37)

Abstract

The following chapter provides an overview about available knowledge, references and investigations on the active and passive flow control devices, initially developed for aeronautic industry that are currently being investigated and introduced on wind turbines. The main goal pursued with the introduction of these devices is to delay the boundary layer separation and enhance/suppress turbulences. The aim is to achieve a lift enhancement, drag reduction or flow-induced noise reduction among other parameters. However, achieving these goals present some issues, because the improvement of one of these parameters may suppose an undesired effect in another. For this reason it is necessary to study in detail each one of these devices, their operating concept, applications and their main advantages and drawbacks. Depending on the flow control nature, devices can be classified as actives or passives. Passive techniques allow to improve the performance of the wind turbines without external energy expenditure whereas active techniques require external energy for their activation. There are a lot of devices and in this chapter there have been compiled some of the most important ones, both passives devices (Vortex Generators , Microtabs, Spoilers, Fences, Serrated trailing edge) and actives devices (Trailing edge flaps, Air Jet Vortex Generators, Synthetic Jets).

Keywords

Wind turbine Flow control Passive devices Active devices Cost of energy Energy efficiency 

Abbreviation and Acronyms

AcVG

Actuator Vortex Generator

AFC

Active Flow Control

AJVG

Air Jet Vortex Generator

CFD

Computational Fluid Dynamics

COE

Cost of Energy

DS

Delay Stall

DOF

Degree of Freedom

DTU

Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

EWEA

Energy Wind Energy Association

FEM

Finite Element Method

VG

Vortex Generator

LE

Leading Edge

MC

Mid Chord

MDO

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

NREL

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

O&M

Operation and Maintenance

RANS

Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes

RWT

Reference Wind Turbine

SST

Shear Stress Transport

TE

Trailing Edge

PVGJ

Pulsed Vortex Generator Jet

EC

Kinetic Energy

ρ

Density

t

Time

CL

Lift Coefficient

CD

Drag Coefficient

A

Area

v

Velocity

α

Angle of Attack

c

Chord

b

Span

h

Height

Notes

Acknowledgements

I would like to take the opportunity to thank Dr. Unai Fernandez Gamiz, from Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics Department of University of the Basque Country of Vitoria-Gasteiz, for his support for the performance of this chapter, and his willingness to share bibliography, time and knowledge. This work was supported by both the Government of the Basque Country and the University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU through the SAIOTEK (S-PE11UN112) and EHU12/26 research programs, respectively.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iñigo Aramendia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Unai Fernandez-Gamiz
    • 1
  • Jose Antonio Ramos-Hernanz
    • 2
  • Javier Sancho
    • 1
  • Jose Manuel Lopez-Guede
    • 3
  • Ekaitz Zulueta
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid MechanicsUniversity of the Basque CountryVitoria-GasteizSpain
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of the Basque CountryVitoria-GasteizSpain
  3. 3.Department of Systems Engineering and AutomaticsUniversity of the Basque CountryVitoria-GasteizSpain

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