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Wastewater Impact on Human Health and Microorganism-Mediated Remediation and Treatment Through Technologies

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Agro-Environmental Sustainability

Abstract

Wastewater treatment is an essential process of any region, without which waterborne pathogens can spread resulting in diseases and degradation of receiving water bodies. The wastewater discharge effluents are involved in the degradation process from different receiving sources. The two main processes required for the removal of impurities from wastewater are through chemical and biological means, but due to some drawbacks, these treatments are not initialized; therefore, untreated or inadequately treated wastewater can cause eutrophication in receiving sources of water bodies and also create adverse environmental conditions favoring proliferation of waterborne toxin-producing pathogenic cyanobacteria. Microorganisms such as microalgae and cyanobacteria are effective in wastewater treatment process and are considered to be critical factors in overcoming numerous waterborne diseases. All biological-treatment processes take advantage of microorganisms to use wastewater effluents to provide the energy for microbial metabolism and multiplication. The role of the different microbial groups present in the wastewater treatment systems with importance of microorganism are involved in the removal process of nitrogen and phosphorus indicating that biological treatment system is useful in wastewater treatment systems. The adaptation of nanotechnology is a traditional process of engineering that offers new opportunities in technological wastewater treatment processes. Microalgae biomass cultivation offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because tertiary biotreatment, coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass used for biofuel and bioactive compound productions, helps to minimize the risks to public health and environment. The chapter objective is to review health impacts of wastewater effluents and current advances in wastewater treatment due to application of microbes and biotechnological advances. The engineered environmental system with the microbial diversity and their interaction has increased the efficiency of wastewater treatment process.

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Correspondence to Jay Shankar Singh .

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Kaushal, S., Singh, J.S. (2017). Wastewater Impact on Human Health and Microorganism-Mediated Remediation and Treatment Through Technologies. In: Singh, J., Seneviratne, G. (eds) Agro-Environmental Sustainability. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49727-3_12

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