Much is known regarding the frequency, prevalence, geographic manifestation, phylogenesis, etiology, physiopathology, clinical presentation, and therapy of kidney stones. Crystalline concretions are present in the kidneys of vertebrates and the equivalent excretory organs of invertebrates; the calcium constitution of the endoskeleton and exoskeleton creates the finite turnover and excretion of calcium, water conservation, and consequent low volume of urine. Thus, it is very difficult to keep calcium salts and other solutes in the urine solution since the laws of physiochemistry cannot be altered via biological evolution. Substances that promote and inhibit the calcium solution are well established in human urine, and their quality and quantity are of great importance, both in physiopathology and in a clinical setting. Urolithiasis is present in 0.5 % of US and EU populations, but its prevalence has increased from 3.2 % to 5.2 % since the 1970s; bladder stones have decreased notably in the last 20 years in developed countries. Stone recurrence remains at 50 % over 5–10 years and 75 % over 20 years; recurrence increases the probability of relapse and increases the amount of time between the two recurrences. These data are very important for what we shall go on to demonstrate here.
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