Pyrolysis in Closed Systems



The reactions of coal and sapropelic kerogen in a closed system are reviewed. A range of chemical kinetic models that include primary and secondary reactions are described, including compositional models of vitrinite reflectance . Again, the primary hydrocarbon generation reactions are consistent with activation energies in the 50–56 kcal/mol range. Diverse published values from hydrous pyrolysis are shown to be caused by inadequate separation of transport and distributed reactivity effects. Oil composition fractionation from hydrous pyrolysis is shown to be similar to that in semi-open pyrolysis. Effects of hydrogen and hydrogen donors are also discussed, including kinetics for coal liquefaction and oil shale thermal solution.


Autoclave pyrolysis Hydrous pyrolysis Hydropyrolysis Hydrothermal pyrolysis Vitrinite reflectance Vitrimat Compositional kinetic models Coal liquefaction Supercritical extraction Thermal solution Petroleum formation 


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LivermoreUSA

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