Advertisement

Classification and Characterization

Chapter

Abstract

The main types of sedimentary organic matter are described, including how they transform from one form to another during progressive burial in the subsurface and how they have been categorized over the past century. The historical usage of coal, bitumen, oil and natural gas is summarized from prehistoric times to the present. Characterization methods are reviewed, including optical, spectroscopic, elemental analysis, pyrolysis, and chromatographic methods.

Keywords

Coal Kerogen Bitumen Pyrobitumen Petroleum Oil shale Shale oil Natural gas Vitrinite reflectance Pyrolysis Rock-Eval Kerogen type Van krevelen diagram Biomarkers 

References

  1. 1.
    B. Durand (ed.), Kerogen: Insoluble Organic Matter from Sedimentary Rocks (Editions Technip, 1980)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    O.C. Kopp, Coal, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/122863/coal. Accessed 7 Aug 2016
  3. 3.
    M.E. Speare, W.A. McCurdy, A. Grierson, Coal and Coal Mining, vol 5, (Encyclopedia Britannica, William Benton, Publisher,1968), pp. 961–975Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.G. Speight, The Chemistry and Technology of Coal, 3nd edn. (CRC press, 2012), pp. 12–13Google Scholar
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    A.H.V. Smith, Provenance of Coals From Roman Sites in England and Wales, vol 28 (Britannia, 1997), pp. 297–324Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H.D. Crane, E.M. Kinderman, R. Malhatra, A Cubic Mile of Oil, (Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. 25–26Google Scholar
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    J.H. Hunt, Petroleum Geochemistry and Geology, 2nd edn. (Freeman, 1995)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D.S. Macgregor, Factors controlling the destruction or preservation of giant light oilfields. Pet. Geosci. 2, 197–217 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.S. Macgregor, Relationships between seepage, tectonics and subsurface petroleum reserves. Mar.Pet. Geol. 10, 606–619 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Genesis 6:14; 11:3; 14:10; Exodus 2:3. The Archaeological Study Bible (Zondervan, 1985) includes a footnote referring to the extensive bitumen deposits around the Dead Sea and MesopotamiaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Herodotus, The Histories, 1.179.4, on Perseus, quoted in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asphalt. Accessed 7 Aug 2016
  14. 14.
    J. Connan, R.P. Evershed, L. Biek, G. Eglinton, Use and trade of bitumen in antiquity and prehistory: Molecular Archaeology Reveals Secrets of Past Civilization. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 354, 33–50 (1999)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. Yergin, The Prize, (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1992)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Wärmländer, S.B. Sholts, J.M. Erlandson, T. Gjerdrum, R. Westerholm, Could the health decline of prehistoric California Indians be related to exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from natural bitumen? Environ. Health Perspect. 119, 1203–1207 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    E. Sasaki, Toyokawa field yields oil, Prehistoric Asphalt, AAPG Explorer, pp. 46–50 Oct (2014)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    J.G. Speight, The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum, 3rd edn. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999), pp. 1–9Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    History of the Oil Shale Industry, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_oil_shale_industry. Accessed 7 Aug 2016
  20. 20.
    G.W. Halse, Oil and Retortable Materials (Charles Griffin and Company, London, 1927)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A.K. Burnham, Oil Shale, In AAPG Energy Minerals Division, Unconventional Energy Resources Review, Nat. Resour. Res. 24, pp. 449–450 (2015)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.R. Dyni, Oil Shale 20, 193–252 (2003), (additional data from P. Allix, G. Vawter, T. Fowler, P. Nichols, P. Wallman, and the Synthetic Fuels Data Handbook, 2nd edn. Cameron Engineers, 1978)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A.L. Mackley, D.L. Boe, A.K. Burnham, R.L. Day, R.G. Vawter, Oil shale history revisited, Proceedings. 32nd Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO, Oct 2012.http://csmspace.com/events/oilshale2013/proceedings32.html, Accessed 7 Aug 2016
  24. 24.
    E.W. Owen, in A history of exploration for petroleum (AAPG Memoir 6, AAPG, 1975), pp. 1–4Google Scholar
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
    BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2016 Workbook, http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy/downloads.html. Accessed 6 Sep 2016
  27. 27.
    What is Organic Petrology? http://www.tsop.org/organic_petrology.html. Accessed 7 Aug 2016
  28. 28.
    B.P. Tissot, D.H. Welte, Petroleum Formation and Occurrence, 2nd edn. (Springer, 1984), pp. 498–507Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    E. Hoffmann, A. Jenkner, Die inkohlung und ihre erkennung im microbild. Glückauf 68, 81–88 (1932)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    W.G. Dow, Kerogen studies and geological interpretation. J. Geochem. Explor. 7, 77–79 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.D. Davis, A.E. Galloway, Low-temperature carbonization of lignites and sub-bituminous coals. Ind. Eng. Chem. 20, 612–617 (1928)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    W.A. Selvig, F.H. Gibson, in Chemistry of Coal Utilization, ed. by H.H. Lowry. Calorific value of coal, vol 1 (Wiley, 1945), p. 139Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    K.E. Stanfield, I.C. Frost, Method of Assaying Oil Shale by a Modified Fischer Retort (U.S. Bureau of Mines Rept. Inv. 4477, 1949)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    K.E. Stanfield, I.C. Frost, W.S. McAuley, and H.N. Smith, Properties of Colorado Oil Shales, (U.S. Bureau of Mines Rept. Inv. 4825, 1951)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    L. Goodfellow, M.T. Atwood, Fischer Assay of oil shale procedures of The Oil Shale Corporation. Proceeding of 7th Oil Shale Symposium, (Colorado. School of Mines Press, 1974), pp. 205–220Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    N. Stout, G. Koskinas, S. Santor, A Laboratory Apparatus for Controlled Time./Temperature Retorting of Oil Shale, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Rept. UCRL-52158, 1976Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    M.F. Singleton, G.J. Koskinas, A.K. Burnham, J.H. Raley, Assay Products from Green River Oil Shale, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Rept. UCRL-53273 Rev. 1, (1986)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. Espitalié, J.L. Lporte, M. Madec et al., Méthode rapide de caractérisation des roches mères, de leur potential pétrolier et de leru degré d’évolution. Rev. Inst. Fr. Pét. 32, 23–42 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    D.M. Jarvie, Components and processes affecting producibility and commerciality of shale resource systems. Geologica Acta 12, 307–325 (2014)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    B. Horsfield, Practical criteria for classifying kerogens: some observations from pyrolysis-gas chromatography. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53, 891–901 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    B. Horsfield, in The bulk composition of first-formed petroleum in source rocks, ed. by D.H. Welte, B. Horsfield, D.R. Baker. Petroleum and Basin Evolution: Insights from Petroleum Geochemistry, Geology, and Basin Modeling, (Springer, 1997), pp. 335–402Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    K.E. Peters, C.C. Walters, J.M. Moldowan, in The Biomarker Guide, (Cambridge University Press, 2005)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    D.W. van Krevelen, Coal—Topology (Physics, Constitution, Elsevier, Chemistry, 1961), pp. 13–22Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    D.W. van Krevelen, Graphical-statistical method for the study of structure and reaction processes of coal. Fuel 29, 269–284 (1950)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    B.P. Tissot and D.H. Welte, Petroleum Formation and Occurrence, 2nd edn. (Springer, 1978), p. 142Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    K.E. Peters, M.R. Cassa, in Applied Source Rock Geochemistry, ed. by L.B. Magoon and W.G. Dow. The Petroleum System—From Source to Trap, (AAPG Memoir 60, 1994), pp. 93–120Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    R.W. Jones, Comparison of carbonate and shale source rocks, in Petroleum Geochemistry and Source Rock Potential of Carbonate Rocks. AAPG Studies in Geology 18, 163–180 (1984)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    A.S. Pepper, P. Corvi, Simple kinetic models of petroleum formation. Part I: oil and gas generation from kerogen, Mar. Petrol. Geol. 12, 291–319 (1995)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    G.H. Eldridge, The asphalt and bituminous rock deposits of the United States, in Twenty-second Annual Report of the United States Geological Survey to the Secretary of the Interior, (No. 22, pt. 1–01-14, 1901), pp. 209-364Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    H. Abraham, Asphalts and Allied Substances, (Van Nostrand-Rheinhold, 1945), p. 62Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. Romanes, Bitumen, (Encyclopedia Britannica, William Benton, Publisher, vol 3, 1968), pp. 728–729Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    D.W. van Krevelen, Coal—Topology, (Chemistry, Physics, Constitution, Elsevier, 1993), Chap. 19, pp. 549–604.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    B.C. Parks, in Origin, petrography, and classification of coal, ed. by H.H. Lowry. Chemistry of Coal Utilization, (Wiley, 1963), Table 3, p. 28Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    M.A. Elliott and G.R. Yohe, in The coal industry and coal research and development in perspective, ed. by H.H.Lowry. Chemistry of Coal Utilization, 2nd Suppl (Wiley, 1981), pp. 16–24Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    R.C. Neavel, in Origin, Petrography, and Classification of Coal, ed. by H.H. Lowry. Chemistry of Coal Utilization, 2nd Suppl, (Wiley, 1981), pp. 139–156Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    J.A. Curiale, Origin of solid bitumens, with emphasis on biomarker results. Org. Geochem. 10, 559–580 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    P.K. Mukhopadhyay, Maturation of organic matter as revealed by microscopic methods: applications and limitations of vitrinite reflectance, and continuous spectral and pulsed laser fluorescence spectroscopy, in Diagenesis. III. Developments in Sedimentology 47, 435–510 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    R.J. Hwang, S.C. Teerman, R.M. Carlson, Geochemical comparison of reservoir solid bitumens with diverse origins. Org. Geochem. 29, 505–517 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    J.L. Warner, D.K. Baskin, R.J. Hwang, R.M.K. Carlson, M.E. Clark, in Geochemical Evidence for Two Stages of Hydrocarbon Emplacement and the Origin of Solid Bitumen in the Giant Tengiz Field, Kazakhstan, ed. by P.O. Yilmaz and G.H. Isaksen. Oil and gas of the Greater Caspian area: AAPG Studies in Geology 55, (2007), pp. 165–169Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    M.L. Bordenave, Applied Petroleum Geochemistry, (Editions Technip, 1993), pp. 106, 159Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    M.D. Lewan, in Petrographic Study of Primary Petroleum Migration in the Woodford Shale and Related Rock Units, ed. by B. Doligez. Migration of Hydrocarbons in Sedimentary Basins, (Editions Technip), p. 113–130Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    A.K. Burnham, J.A. Happe, On the mechanism of kerogen pyrolysis. Fuel 63, 1353–1356 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    A.B. Hubbard, W.E. Robinson, A Thermal Decomposition Study of Colorado Oil Shale, (U.S. Bureau of Mines Rept. Inv. 4744, U.S. Dept. Interior, 1950)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    V.D. Allred, Oil Shale Processing Technology, Center for Professional Advancement, New Brunswick, NJ, (1982), Chap. 3, pp. 55–66Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    R. Loison, A. Peytavy, A.F. Boyer, R. Grillot, in The Plastic Properties of Coal, ed. by H.H. Lowry. Chemistry of Coal Utilization. (Wiley, 1963), p. 179Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    D.W. van Krevelen, Coal—Topology (Physics, Constitution, Elsevier, Chemistry, 1993), pp. 704–706Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.LivermoreUSA

Personalised recommendations