3D Digital Libraries and Their Contribution in the Documentation of the Past

  • Marinos IoannidesEmail author
  • Rob Davies
  • Pavlos Chatzigrigoriou
  • Eirini Papageorgiou
  • Georgios Leventis
  • Vasiliki Nikolakopoulou
  • Vasilis Athanasiou


From the ancient library of Alexandria 2300 years ago, the objectives of the collection of information has a common fundamental base: to gather, preserve, and promote knowledge, thus helping in the intellectual and cognitive evolution of humanity. Today, the information revolution has given the ability to scientists, educators, researchers, and individuals not only to use a variety of digital libraries as an information source but also to contribute to these libraries by uploading data that they create, leading to a massive production of knowledge that we need to verify, manage, archive, preserve, and reuse. Cultural heritage data is a category in digital libraries that needs much attention, because of its crucial role in helping us to interact with the past and learn, promote, and preserve our cultural assets. Digital documentation of tangible and intangible heritage, data formats and standards, metadata and semantics, Linked Data, crowdsourcing and cloud, use and reuse of data, and copyright issues are the rising challenges that we try to address in this chapter, through literature review and best practice examples. At the end of this analysis, this chapter tries to predict the near future of digital heritage libraries, where 3D digital assets will be part of augmented, virtual, and mixed reality experiences.


Digital libraries Digital documentation 3D reconstruction Semantic annotation Ontology 3D library Crowdsourcing 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. Agosti, Digital libraries, in Information Retrieval (2011), p. 307Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Candela, G. Athanasopoulos, D. Castelli, K. El Raheb, P. Innocenti, Y. Ioannidis, A. Katifori, A.Nika, G.Vullo, S. Ross, Digital Library Manifesto (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Seadle, E. Greifeneder, Defining a digital library. Libr. Hi Tech. 25, 169–173 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    L.C. Borgman, What are digital libraries?: competing visions. Inf. Process. Manage. 35, 227–243 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    P. Linde, Introduction to digital libraries – Memex of the future, in Conference on Electronic Publishing (Blekinge Institute of Technology, 2006), pp. 15–32Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. Sotirova, J. Peneva, S. Ivanov, R. Doneva, M. Dobreva, in Digitization of Cultural Heritage – Standards, Institutions, Initiatives (1972)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    IFLA/UNESCO, IFLA/UNESCO Manifesto for Digital Libraries (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D.J. Crane, creating services for the digital library. Online Inf. 96. Proc. Twent. Int. Online Inf. Meet. London, 3–5 Dec 1996 (1996), pp. 397–401Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    V. Bachi, A. Fresa, C. Pierotti, C. Prandoni, The Digitization Age: Mass Culture is Quality Culture. Challenges for cultural heritage and society. (2016)
  10. 10.
    EPOCH/IST, Excellence in Processing Open Cultural Heritage D.1.12 – Publishable Final Activity Report (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Denard, London Charter (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    FOCUS-K3D, Public Annual Report 2010 Summary of Activities (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    3D ICONS, Guidelines and Case Studies (2014)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    3D-COFORM, D.1.5 – (3D COFORM) Project Final Report (2013)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Europeana/CARARE Project, D1.8 – Final Report (2013)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Oreni, From 3D content models to HBIM for conservation and management of built heritage. Lectures Notes Computer Science (including Subser. Lect. Notes Artif. Intell. Lect. Notes Bioinformatics). 7974 LNCS, pp. 344–357 (2013)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C.E. Catalano, M. Mortara, M. Spagnuolo, B. Falcidieno, Semantics and 3D media: current issues and perspectives. Comput. Graph. 35, 869–877 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    EUROPEANA, We transform the world with culture (2015)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. Hill, D. Haskiya, A. Isaac, H. Manguinhas, V. Charles, Europeana Search Strategy (2016)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    N.L. Choh, National Libraries Global (NLG) : A Proposal (2014)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    UNESCO/PERSIST Content Task Force, The UNESCO/PERSIST Guidelines for the selection of digital heritage for long- term preservation (2016)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. Ronzino, K. Fernie, C. Papatheodorou, A. Rc, H. Wright, J. Richards, D3.2: Report on project standards Authors (2013)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Europeana, White Paper on Best Practices for Multilingual Access to Digital Libraries (2016)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. Anttonen, K.H. Victoria Ateca-Amestoy, T. Johansson, A.K. Annukka Jyrämä, K.K.-B. Kaari-Kiitsak Prikk, M. Luonila, J.-M. Kõlar, K.P. Beatriz Plaza, T. Pusa, M.S. Anna Ranczakowska-Ljutjuk, A.Ä. Ira Stiller, Managing Art Projects with Societal Impact, Helsinki (2016)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. Arnold, Excellence in Processing Open Cultural Heritage D.1.12 – Publishable Final Activity Report (2008)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    K. Fernie, M.D.R. Partners, D1.8 – Final Report (2013)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
    Papagiannakis et al., Mobile AR/VR rendering and animation in gamified heritage sites (2016)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Graham, M. Zook, A. Boulton, Augmented reality in urban places: contested content and the duplicity of code. Trans. Inst. Br. Geogr. 38, 464–479 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. Azuma, A survey of augmented reality. Presence Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 6, 355–385 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    I. Lapowsky, Magic Leap CEO Teases “Golden Tickets” for Its Augmented-Reality Device,
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
    V. McKalin, Virtual Reality vs. Augmented Reality,
  34. 34.
    D. Raggett, Platform Independent,
  35. 35.
    Web3D Consortium, What is X3D?|Web3D Consortium,
  36. 36.
    M.E. Masci, A.De Santis, K. Fernie, D. Pletinckx, 3D in the CARARE project: providing Europeana with 3D content for the archaeological and architectural heritage: The Pompeii case study, in Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Virtual System Multimedia, VSMM 2012 Virtual System Information Society (2012), pp. 227–234Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. Ivanova, M. Dobreva, P. Stanchev, G. Totkov, Access to Digital Cultural Heritage: Innovative Applications of Automated Metadata Generation. Plovdiv University Publishing House, Paisii Hilendarski (2012)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    G. Alemu, B. Stevens, P. Ross, G. Alemu, B. Stevens, P. Ross, Towards a conceptual framework for user-driven semantic metadata interoperability in digital libraries: a social constructivist approach. New Libr. World. 113, 38–54 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Foulonneau, J. Riley, Metadata for Digital Resources: Implementation (Systems Design and Interoperability, Elsevier, New York, 2014)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    B. Glushko, Metadata and Metadata Standards. Lecture presentation at Berkley School of Information, USA 2006 (2008)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Europeana Metadata Quality Task Force, Report and Recommendations from the Task Force on Metadata Quality, p. 54 (2015)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    M.W. Elings, G. Waibel, Metadata for all: descriptive standards and metadata sharing across libraries, archives and museums (2007)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M.-A. Sicilia, Metadata, semantics, and ontology: providing meaning to information resources. Int. J. Metadata Semant. Ontol. 1, 83–86 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    C.S. Peirce, Collected Papers of CS Peirce, ed. by C. Hartshorne, P. Weiss, A. Burks, 8 vols (1931)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    T. Brasethvik, A semantic modeling approach to metadata. Internet Res. 8, 377–386 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M.-A. Sicilia, M.D. Lytras, Metadata and Semantics (Springer Science & Business Media, London, 2008)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Doerr, S. Stead, Harmonized models for the Digital World CIDOC CRM, FRBROO, CRMDig and Europeana EDM, in Tutorial 15th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries, TPDL, Berlin (2011)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    J.E. Rowley, The wisdom hierarchy: representations of the DIKW hierarchy. J. Inf. Sci. 33(2), 163–180 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    K.H. Veltman, Syntactic and semantic interoperability: new approaches to knowledge and the semantic web. New Rev. Inf. Netw. 7, 159–183 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    J. Trant, B. Wyman, Investigating social tagging and folksonomy in art museums with steve museum, in Collaborative Web Tagging Workshop at WWW, Edinburgh (2006)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    G. Schreiber, A. Amin, L. Aroyo, M. van Assem, V. de Boer, L. Hardman, M. Hildebrand, B. Omelayenko, J. van Osenbruggen, A. Tordai, J. Wielemaker, B. Wielinga, Semantic annotation and search of cultural-heritage collections: the multimediaN E-culture demonstrator. Web Semant. 6, 243–249 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    V. De Boer, J. Wielemaker, J. Van Gent, M. Hildebrand, A. Isaac, J. Van Ossenbruggen, G. Schreiber, Supporting linked data production for cultural heritage institutes: The Amsterdam museum case study. Lecture Notes Computer Science (including Subser. Lect. Notes Artif. Intell. Lect. Notes Bioinformatics). 7295 LNCS (2012), pp. 733–747Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    J. Schaffner, The Metadata is the Interface: Better Description for Better Discovery of Archives and Special Collections. Synthesized from User Studies (2009)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    J. Lee, D. Lee, J. Moon, M.-C. Park, Factors affecting the perceived usability of the mobile web portal services: comparing simplicity with consistency. Inf. Technol. Manage. 14, 43–57 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    J. Nielsen, Designing web usability: the practice of simplicity New Riders Publishing (Indianapolis, Indiana, 2000)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    L. Tischler, The Beauty of Simplicity, (2005)
  57. 57.
    H. Obendorf, Minimalism, Simplicity and Rules of Design (Springer, London, 2009), pp. 97–121Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    B. Bustos, D.W. Fellner, S. Havemann, D.A. Keim, D. Saupe, T. Schreck, Foundations of 3D Digital Libraries: Current Approaches and Urgent Research Challenges. Bibliothek der Universität Konstanz (2007)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    M. Ioannides, P. Chatzigrigoriou, V. Bokolas, V. Nikolakopoulou, V. Athanasiou, Educational use of 3D models and photogrammetry content: the Europeana space project for Cypriot UNESCO monuments, in Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Remote Sensing and Geoinformation of Environment, ed. by K. Themistocleous, D.G. Hadjimitsis, S. Michaelides, G. Papadavid, SPIE Digital Library, Cyprus, April (2016)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    S. Whatley, Europeana Space: Final Report on the Content Space and Legal Aspects (2016)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    C. Morrison, J. Secker, Copyright literacy in the UK: a survey of librarians and other cultural heritage sector professionals. Libr. Inf. Res. 39, 75–97 (2015)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    EU, ICT PSP Work Programme 2012. 78 (2012)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    D.R. Tobergte, S. Curtis, Europeana creative: where cultural heritage and creative industries meet to re-use Europe’s digital memories. J. Chem. Inf. Model. 53, 1689–1699 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    M. Terras, Opening access to collections: the making and using of open digitised cultural content. Online Inf. Rev. 39, 733–752 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    N. Kroes, Foreword: culture and open data: how can museums get the best from their digital assets? Uncommon Cult. 2, 5–7 (2011)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    G.G. Waibel, R. Erway, Think global, act local – library, archive and museum collaboration. Museum 24, 323–335 (2009)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gartner Inc., Gartner Identifies the Top 10 Strategic Technologies for 2011, (2011)
  68. 68.
    Q. Zhang, L. Cheng, R. Boutaba, Cloud computing: state-of-the-art and research challenges. J. Internet Serv. Appl. 1, 7–18 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Venkatesh, Cloud computing security issues and challenges. Int. J. Comput. Sci. Inf. Technol. Res. 2, 122–128 (2014)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    S. Stead, Cloud Computing and Cultural Heritage IT (2012)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    M. Hedstrom, 1998-Digital preservation: a time bomb for digital libraries. Comput. Hum. 31, 189–202 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    N. Beagrie, N. Semple, P. Williams, R. Wright, Digital Preservation Policies. Part 1: Final Report. Strategies 60 (2008)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    D. Lavoie, Thirteen Ways of Looking at… Digital Preservation. D-Lib Mag. 10 (2004)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    R. Moore, Towards a theory of digital preservation. Int. J. Digit. Curation. 3, 63–75 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    G. Chowdhury, From digital libraries to digital preservation research: the importance of users and context. J. Doc. 66, 207–223 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    K. Sotirova, J. Peneva, S. Ivanov, R. Doneva, M. Dobreva, Digitization of Cultural Heritage–Standards, Institutions, Initiatives (2015)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    M. Ferreira, A. Baptista, J. Ramalho, An intelligent decision support system for digital preservation. Int. J. Digit. Libr. 6, 295–304 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    K. Lee, O. Slattery, R. Lu, X. Tang, V. Mccrary, The state of the art and practice in digital preservation. J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 107, 93–106 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    J. Spence, Preserving the cultural heritage. Aslib Proc. 58, 513–524 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    J. Howe, The rise of crowdsourcing. Wired Mag. 14, 1–5 (2006)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    N. Colasanti, R. Frondizi, M. Memeguzzo, The “Crowd” revolution in the public sector: from crowdsourcing to crowdstorming. IFKAD Proceedings (2016)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    R. Spindler, An evaluation of crowdsourcing and participatory archives projects for archival description and transcription. Arizona State Univ. Libr. 26 (2014)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    R. Holley, Crowdsourcing: how and why should libraries do it? D-Lib Mag. 16 (2010)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    D. McKinley, Crowdsourcing cultural heritage 101, (2015)
  85. 85.
    S. Bakhshi, D.A. Shamma, L. Kennedy, E. Gilbert, Why we filter photos and how it impacts engagement. Assoc. Adv. Artif. Intell. (2015)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    L. Dempsey, Scientific, Industrial, and Cultural Heritage. A Shared Approach: A Research Framework for Digital Libraries, Museums and Archives, (2000)
  87. 87.
    J. Trant, Emerging convergence? Thoughts on museums, archives, libraries, and professional training. Museum Manage. Curatorsh. 24, 369–387 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    G. Chowdhury, Sustainability of digital libraries: a conceptual model and a research framework. Int. J. Digit. Libr. 14, 181–195 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    The Digital Library Reference Model: The Digital Library Reference Model (2010)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    RICHES, Digital Libraries, Collections, Exhibitions and Users. Exploring the status of digital heritage mediated by memory institutions (2015)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    S. Boeykens, Using 3D Design Software, BIM and Game Engines for Architectural Historical Reconstruction, in Proceedings of 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architecture Design Futures, pp. 493–509 (2011)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    A. Malraux, Museum Without Walls (Secker & Warburg, London, 1967)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marinos Ioannides
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rob Davies
    • 2
  • Pavlos Chatzigrigoriou
    • 2
  • Eirini Papageorgiou
    • 2
  • Georgios Leventis
    • 2
  • Vasiliki Nikolakopoulou
    • 2
  • Vasilis Athanasiou
    • 2
  1. 1.Digital Heritage Research LabCyprus University of TechnologyLimassolCyprus
  2. 2.Cyprus University of TechnologyLemesosCyprus

Personalised recommendations