The Evolution of Strategic Options, Actors, Tools and Tensions in Open Innovation



Open innovation describes innovation processes that span across the boundaries of organizations or research and development (R&D) departments. It integrates different types of innovators—regardless of their institutional affiliations—to generate creative ideas, innovation concepts and novel solutions. The purpose of this chapter is to describe underlying mechanisms and strategic options for realizing open innovation. It presents three types of innovators and their functions in innovation endeavors and introduces five classes of tools that facilitate open innovation. Finally, challenges and core tensions are discussed as a basis for the successful management of strategic open innovation initiatives.


Innovation Process Open Innovation Innovation Activity Additive Manufacturing Organizational Innovation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



A very warm thank you to all inside and outside innovators who are part of our ongoing innovation research journey! This article bundles knowledge from the research projects “Open-I: Open Innovation within Organizations”, funded by the federal ministry of research and education (BMBF) and the European social fund (ESF) (support code 01FM07053 and 01FM07054), the service-innovation initiative of Fraunhofer IIS, and draws on earlier work (e.g. Moeslein and Bansemir 2011; Moeslein et al. 2012; Moeslein 2013; Fritzsche 2017).


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen Nürnberg, WI1 – Innovation Und WertschöpfungNurembergGermany

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