Coffee Shade Tree Management: An Adaptation Option for Climate Change Impact for Small Scale Coffee Growers in South-West Ethiopia
Little information is available on the effects of changes in land use/land cover (LULC) on climate variability in Ethiopia. To characterize this influence, a study was conducted on 30 selected coffee plots along an altitudinal gradient (1500–2100 masl) in Jimma area. The LULC of the transect was characterized using aerial photographs and satellite images and clipped around each coffee plot at the scale of 50, 100 and 200 m radius. To determine the effect of shade (trees), one of the LULC, on microclimate variability, temperature (°C) was recorded both under shade and open area using data loggers along the gradient from June 2012 to 2015. Eight LULC (crop land, pasture land, exotic trees, indigenous trees, river, road, urban and extraction site) were identified in the area. Some of the coffee plots were composed of small areas of trees and large areas of cropland and vice versa. The presence of cropped and pasture land prevented the occurrence of indigenous and exotic trees respectively. Based on LULC, the 30 coffee plots were grouped into three coffee classes (Isolated coffee plots (class1), patch of coffee plots (class2) and coffee plots with contiguous forest (class3). Coffee plots of class3, characterized by high tree density, has lower mean temperature and high relative humidity and wetness duration both during wet and dry season. During the wet season, there was a maximum temperature difference of 1.21 °C among the coffee classes while in the dry season it was 1.03 °C. Furthermore, a mean temperature difference of about 1 °C was observed between open and under shade conditions. Along the gradient, the variation was similar indicating a possibility of developing a shade management strategy as an adaptation option to climate change impact on coffee along an altitudinal gradient.
KeywordsCoffea arabica Forest fragmentation Land use land cover types Shade Microclimate
The authors would like to thank Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland for funding through CHIESA project and Ageyo-Setema coffee growing farmers for allowing us to implement the activity on their coffee farms. The authors also would like to thank Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine for logistic support.
- CFC (Common Fund for Commodities). (2004). Improving coffee quality in east and central Africa through enhanced processing practices (pp. 10–11) (A (CFC/ICO/22) Project for Rwanda and Ethiopia, Final Appraisal Report). The Netherlands, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Ewers, R. M., & Banks-Leite, C. (2013). Fragmentation impairs the microclimate buffering effect of tropical forests. PLoS ONE, 8(3), e58093. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058093
- Hardwick, S. R., Toumi, R., Pfeifer, M., Turner, E. C., Nilus, R., & Ewers, R. M. (2015). The relationship between leaf area index and microclimate in tropical forest and oil palm plantation: Forest disturbance drives changes in microclimate. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 201, 187–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pielke, R. A., Marland, G., Betts, R. A., Chase, T. N., Eastman, J. L., Niles, J. O., et al. (2002). The influence of land-use change and landscape dynamics on the climate system: Relevance to climate-change policy beyond the radiative effect of greenhouse gases. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 360, 1705–1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- R Development Core Team. (2012). R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
- Weldetsadik, W., & Kebede, K. (2000). Coffee production systems in Ethiopia. Proceedings of the workshop on the control of coffee berry disease in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, August 13–15, 1999.Google Scholar