Lako SJ, Steegers MA, van EJ, Gardeniers J, Staals LM, van Geffen GJ. Incisional continuous fascia iliaca block provides more effective pain relief and fewer side effects than opioids after pelvic osteotomy in children. Anesth Analg. 2009;109:1799–803.
Reinhardt KR, Duggal S, Umunna BP, Reinhardt GA, Nam D, Alexiades M, Cornell CN. Intraarticular analgesia versus epidural plus femoral nerve block after TKA: a randomized, double-blind trial. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014;472:1400–8.
Gupta A, Favaios S, Perniola A, Magnuson A, Berggren L. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of wound catheters for post-operative pain management. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2011;55:785–96.
Ansbro FP. A method of continuous brachial plexus block. Am J Surg. 1946;71:716–22.
DeKrey JA, Schroeder CF, Buechel DR. Continuous brachial plexus block. Anesthesiology. 1969;30:332.
Bingham AE, Fu R, Horn JL, Abrahams MS. Continuous peripheral nerve block compared with single-injection peripheral nerve block: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012;37:583–94.
Greengrass RA, Feinglass NG, Murray PM, Trigg SD. Continuous regional anesthesia before surgical peripheral sympathectomy in a patient with severe digital necrosis associated with Raynaud's phenomenon and scleroderma. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2003;28:354–8.
Berger A, Tizian C, Zenz M. Continuous plexus blockade for improved circulation in microvascular surgery. Ann Plast Surg. 1985;14:16–9.
Loland VJ, Ilfeld BM, Abrams RA, Mariano ER. Ultrasound-guided perineural catheter and local anesthetic infusion in the perioperative management of pediatric limb salvage: a case report. Paediatr Anaesth. 2009;19:905–7.
Kurt E, Ozturk S, Isik S, Zor F. Continuous brachial plexus blockade for digital replantations and toe-to-hand transfers. Ann Plast Surg. 2005;54:24–7.
Renes SH, van Geffen GJ, Rettig HC, Gielen MJ, Scheffer GJ. Ultrasound-guided continuous phrenic nerve block for persistent hiccups. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35:455–7.
Manriquez RG, Pallares V. Continuous brachial plexus block for prolonged sympathectomy and control of pain. Anesth Analg. 1978;57:128–30.
Schreiber T, Ullrich K, Paplow B, Gaser E, Lemmen HJ, Meissner W. The use of the infraclavicular plexus catheter for treatment of perioperative and chronic pain. Anaesthesist. 2002;51:16–22.
Linares del Rio F, Moniche Garcia Pumarino M, Herruezo Perez A. Therapeutic application of anesthetic blocks in weever-fish stings. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 1989;36:57–9.
Gemayel MC, Chidiac JE, Chidiac EJ. Ambulatory continuous interscalene blocks for cancer pain. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2015;29:34–6.
Borghi B, D’Addabbo M, White PF, Gallerani P, Toccaceli L, Raffaeli W, Tognu A, Fabbri N, Mercuri M. The use of prolonged peripheral neural blockade after lower extremity amputation: the effect on symptoms associated with phantom limb syndrome. Anesth Analg. 2010;111:1308–15.
Hunter JG. Managing pain on the battlefield: an introduction to continuous peripheral nerve blocks. J R Army Med Corps. 2010;156:230–2.
Capdevila X, Barthelet Y, Biboulet P, Ryckwaert Y, Rubenovitch J, d'Athis F. Effects of perioperative analgesic technique on the surgical outcome and duration of rehabilitation after major knee surgery. Anesthesiology. 1999;91:8–15.
De Ruyter ML, Brueilly KE, Harrison BA, Greengrass RA, Putzke JD, Brodersen MP. A pilot study on continuous femoral perineural catheter for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty: the effect on physical rehabilitation and outcomes. J Arthroplasty. 2006;21:1111–7.
Ilfeld BM, Vandenborne K, Duncan PW, Sessler DI, Enneking FK, Shuster JJ, Theriaque DW, Chmielewski TL, Spadoni EH, Wright TW. Ambulatory continuous interscalene nerve blocks decrease the time to discharge readiness after total shoulder arthroplasty: a randomized, triple-masked, placebo-controlled study. Anesthesiology. 2006;105:999–1007.
Ilfeld BM. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks: a review of the published evidence. Anesth Analg. 2011;113:904–25.
Popping DM, Zahn PK, Van Aken HK, Dasch B, Boche R, Pogatzki-Zahn EM. Effectiveness and safety of postoperative pain management: a survey of 18 925 consecutive patients between 1998 and 2006 (2nd revision): a database analysis of prospectively raised data. Br J Anaesth. 2008;101:832–40.
Richman JM, Liu SS, Courpas G, Wong R, Rowlingson AJ, McGready J, Cohen SR, Wu CL. Does continuous peripheral nerve block provide superior pain control to opioids? A meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:248–57.
Stevens MF, Werdehausen R, Golla E, Braun S, Hermanns H, Ilg A, Willers R, Lipfert P. Does interscalene catheter placement with stimulating catheters improve postoperative pain or functional outcome after shoulder surgery? A prospective, randomized and double-blinded trial. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:442–7.
Dadure C, Macq C, Sola C, Raux O. Regional anesthesia for postoperative analgesia at home in children. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2013;32:e17–20.
Enneking FK, Ilfeld BM. Major surgery in the ambulatory environment: continuous catheters and home infusions. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2002;16:285–94.
Ludot H, Berger J, Pichenot V, Belouadah M, Madi K, Malinovsky JM. Continuous peripheral nerve block for postoperative pain control at home: a prospective feasibility study in children. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008;33:52–6.
Visoiu M, Joy LN, Grudziak JS, Chelly JE. The effectiveness of ambulatory continuous peripheral nerve blocks for postoperative pain management in children and adolescents. Paediatr Anaesth. 2014;24:1141–8.
American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Infectious Complications Associated with Neuraxial Techniques. Practice advisory for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of infectious complications associated with neuraxial techniques: a report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on infectious complications associated with neuraxial techniques. Anesthesiology. 2010;112:530–45.
Hebl JR, Neal JM. Infectious complications: a new practice advisory. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006;31:289–90.
Jochum D, Iohom G, Bouaziz H. Asepsis in regional anesthesia. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2010;48:35–44.
Hebl JR. The importance and implications of aseptic techniques during regional anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006;31:311–23.
Reisig F, Neuburger M, Zausig YA, Graf BM, Buttner J. Successful infection control in regional anesthesia procedures: observational survey after introduction of the DGAI hygiene recommendations. Anaesthesist. 2013;62:105–12.
Schulz-Stubner S, Pottinger JM, Coffin SA, Herwaldt LA. Nosocomial infections and infection control in regional anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008;52:1144–57.
Rodriguez J, Taboada M, Blanco M, Oliveira J, Barcena M, Alvarez J. Intraneural catheterization of the sciatic nerve in humans: a pilot study. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008;33:285–90.
Steinfeldt T, Nimphius W, Wurps M, Eberhart L, Vassiliou T, Kill C, Wulf H, Graf J. Nerve perforation with pencil point or short bevelled needles: histological outcome. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010;54:993–9.
Steinfeldt T, Werner T, Nimphius W, Wiesmann T, Kill C, Muller HH, Wulf H, Graf J. Histological analysis after peripheral nerve puncture with pencil-point or Tuohy needletip. Anesth Analg. 2011;112:465–70.
Kick O, Blanche E, Pham-Dang C, Pinaud M, Estebe JP. A new stimulating stylet for immediate control of catheter tip position in continuous peripheral nerve blocks. Anesth Analg. 1999;89:533–4.
Buckenmaier III CC, Auton AA, Flournoy WS. Continuous peripheral nerve block catheter tip adhesion in a rat model. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2006;50:694–8.
Fredrickson MJ. Randomised comparison of an end-hole, triple-hole and novel six-hole catheter for continuous interscalene analgesia. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2014;42:37–42.
Luyet C, Seiler R, Herrmann G, Hatch GM, Ross S, Eichenberger U. Newly designed, self-coiling catheters for regional anesthesia--an imaging study. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2011;36:171–6.
Lanigan CJ. Safer epidural and spinal connectors. Anaesthesia. 2002;57:567–71.
Orser BA, Hyland S, U D, Sheppard I, Wilson CR. Review article: improving drug safety for patients undergoing anesthesia and surgery. Can J Anaesth. 2013;60:127–35.
Ip V, Tsui B. The safety of an interscalene catheter-over-needle technique. Anaesthesia. 2013;68:774–5.
Spencer AO, Tsui BC. Intermittent bolus via infraclavicular nerve catheter using a catheter-over-needle technique in a pediatric patient. Can J Anaesth. 2014;61:684–5.
Rothe C, Steen-Hansen C, Madsen MH, Lundstrom LH, Heimburger R, Jensen KE, Lange KH. A novel suture method to place and adjust peripheral nerve catheters. Anaesthesia. 2015;70:791–6.
Tsui BC, Ip VH. Catheter-over-needle method reduces risk of perineural catheter dislocation. Br J Anaesth. 2014;112:759–60.
Moore DC. “No paresthesias-no anesthesia,” the nerve stimulator or neither? Reg Anesth. 1997;22:388–90.
Selander D. Catheter technique in axillary plexus block. Presentation of a new method. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1977;21:324–9.
Selander D, Edshage S, Wolff T. Paresthesiae or no paresthesiae? Nerve lesions after axillary blocks. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1979;23:27–33.
Perlas A, Niazi A, McCartney C, Chan V, Xu D, Abbas S. The sensitivity of motor response to nerve stimulation and paresthesia for nerve localization as evaluated by ultrasound. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006;31:445–50.
Selander D. Peripheral nerve damage and regional anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth. 1995;75:116–7.
Brull R, Wijayatilake DS, Perlas A, Chan VW, Abbas S, Liguori GA, Hargett MJ, El-Beheiry H. Practice patterns related to block selection, nerve localization and risk disclosure: a survey of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008;33:395–403.
Rafi AN. Abdominal field block: a new approach via the lumbar triangle. Anaesthesia. 2001;56:1024–6.
Isyanov A, Suresh S. Continuous ilioinguinal nerve catheter infusions for iliac bone graft: postoperative pain control without adverse effects! Paediatr Anaesthesia. 2009;19:282–3.
Dalens B, Vanneuville G, Tanguy A. Comparison of the fascia iliaca compartment block with the 3-in-1 block in children. Anesth Analg. 1989;69:705–13.
Ang ET, Lassale B, Goldfarb G. Continuous axillary brachial plexus block--a clinical and anatomical study. Anesth Analg. 1984;63:680–4.
Shido A, Imamachi N, Doi K, Sakura S, Saito Y. Continuous local anesthetic infusion through ultrasound-guided rectus sheath catheters. Can J Anaesth. 2010;57:1046–7.
Greenblatt GM, Denson JS. Needle nerve stimulatorlocator: nerve blocks with a new instrument for locating nerves. Anesth Analg. 1962;41:599–602.
Klein SM, Melton MS, Grill WM, Nielsen KC. Peripheral nerve stimulation in regional anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012;37:383–92.
Salinas FV. Location, location, location: Continuous peripheral nerve blocks and stimulating catheters. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2003;28:79–82.
Ahsan ZS, Carvalho B, Yao J. Incidence of failure of continuous peripheral nerve catheters for postoperative analgesia in upper extremity surgery. J Hand Surg [Am]. 2014;39:324–9.
Grant SA, Nielsen KC, Greengrass RA, Steele SM, Klein SM. Continuous peripheral nerve block for ambulatory surgery. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2001;26:209–14.
Capdevila X, Biboulet P, Morau D, Bernard N, Deschodt J, Lopez S, d’Athis F. Continuous three-in-one block for postoperative pain after lower limb orthopedic surgery: where do the catheters go? Anesth Analg. 2002;94:1001–6. table
Luyet C, Herrmann G, Ross S, Vogt A, Greif R, Moriggl B, Eichenberger U. Ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral puncture and placement of catheters in human cadavers: where do catheters go? Br J Anaesth. 2011;106:246–54.
Pham Dang C, Difalco C, Guilley J, Venet G, Hauet P, Lejus C. Various possible positions of conventional catheters around the femoral nerve revealed by neurostimulation. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009;34:285–9.
Boezaart AP, de Beer JF, du TC, van RK. A new technique of continuous interscalene nerve block. Can J Anaesth. 1999;46:275–81.
Sutherland ID. Continuous sciatic nerve infusion: expanded case report describing a new approach. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 1998;23:496–501.
Ip VH, Tsui BC. Injection of injectates is more than just for “opening the perineural space”. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2011;36:89–90.
Pham Dang C, Lelong A, Guilley J, Nguyen JM, Volteau C, Venet G, Perrier C, Lejus C, Blanloeil Y. Effect on neurostimulation of injectates used for perineural space expansion before placement of a stimulating catheter: normal saline versus dextrose 5 % in water. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009;34:398–403.
Tsui BC, Kropelin B. The electrophysiological effect of dextrose 5 % in water on single-shot peripheral nerve stimulation. Anesth Analg. 2005;100:1837–9.
Hayek SM, Ritchey RM, Sessler D, Helfand R, Samuel S, Xu M, Beven M, Bourdakos D, Barsoum W, Brooks P. Continuous femoral nerve analgesia after unilateral total knee arthroplasty: stimulating versus nonstimulating catheters. Anesth Analg. 2006;103:1565–70.
Tran DQ, Taam J, De La Cuadra-Fontaine JC. Minimal threshold for stimulating catheters. J Clin Anesth. 2008;20:45–7.
Wehling MJ, Koorn R, Leddell C, Boezaart AP. Electrical nerve stimulation using a stimulating catheter: what is the lower limit? Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2004;29:230–3.
Altermatt FR, Corvetto MA, Venegas C, Echevarria G, Bravo P, De la Cuadra JC, Irribarra LA. Brief report: The sensitivity of motor responses for detecting catheter-nerve contact during ultrasound-guided femoral nerve blocks with stimulating catheters. Anesth Analg. 2011;113:1276–8.
Schoenmakers KP, Heesterbeek PJ, Jack NT, Stienstra R. No correlation between minimal electrical charge at the tip of the stimulating catheter and the efficacy of the peripheral nerve block catheter for brachial plexus block: a prospective blinded cohort study. BMC Anesthesiol. 2014;14:26.
Birnbaum J, Kip M, Spies CD, Hein OV, Labs K, Moeckel G, Volk T. The effect of stimulating versus nonstimulating catheters for continuous interscalene plexus blocks in short-term pain management. J Clin Anesth. 2007;19:434–9.
Casati A, Fanelli G, Koscielniak-Nielsen Z, Cappelleri G, Aldegheri G, Danelli G, Fuzier R, Singelyn F. Using stimulating catheters for continuous sciatic nerve block shortens onset time of surgical block and minimizes postoperative consumption of pain medication after halux valgus repair as compared with conventional nonstimulating catheters. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:1192–7. table
Casati A, Fanelli G, Danelli G, Baciarello M, Ghisi D, Nobili F, Chelly JE. Stimulating or conventional perineural catheters after hallux valgus repair: a double-blind, pharmaco-economic evaluation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2006;50:1284–9.
Dhir S, Ganapathy S. Comparative evaluation of ultrasound-guided continuous infraclavicular brachial plexus block with stimulating catheter and traditional technique: a prospective-randomized trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008;52:1158–66.
Morin AM, Kranke P, Wulf H, Stienstra R, Eberhart LH. The effect of stimulating versus nonstimulating catheter techniques for continuous regional anesthesia: a semiquantitative systematic review. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35:194–9.
Paqueron X, Narchi P, Mazoit JX, Singelyn F, Benichou A, Macaire P. A randomized, observer-blinded determination of the median effective volume of local anesthetic required to anesthetize the sciatic nerve in the popliteal fossa for stimulating and nonstimulating perineural catheters. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009;34:290–5.
Rodriguez J, Taboada M, Carceller J, Lagunilla J, Barcena M, Alvarez J. Stimulating popliteal catheters for postoperative analgesia after hallux valgus repair. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:258–62.
Barrington MJ, Olive DJ, McCutcheon CA, Scarff C, Said S, Kluger R, Gillett N, Choong P. Stimulating catheters for continuous femoral nerve blockade after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:1316–21. table
Capdevila X, Ponrouch M, Choquet O. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in clinical practice. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2008;21:619–23.
Dauri M, Sidiropoulou T, Fabbi E, Giannelli M, Faria S, Mariani P, Sabato AF. Efficacy of continuous femoral nerve block with stimulating catheters versus nonstimulating catheters for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007;32:282–7.
Salinas FV, Neal JM, Sueda LA, Kopacz DJ, Liu SS. Prospective comparison of continuous femoral nerve block with nonstimulating catheter placement versus stimulating catheter-guided perineural placement in volunteers. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2004;29:212–20.
Choi S, McCartney CJ. Evidence base for the use of ultrasound for upper extremity blocks: 2014 update. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2016;41(2):242–50.
Fredrickson MJ. The sensitivity of motor response to needle nerve stimulation during ultrasound guided interscalene catheter placement. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008;33:291–6.
Ilfeld BM, Fredrickson MJ, Mariano ER. Ultrasound-guided perineural catheter insertion: three approaches but few illuminating data. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35:123–6.
Gray AT. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: current state of the art. Anesthesiology. 2006;104:368–73. discussion
Sandhu NS, Capan LM. Ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Br J Anaesth. 2002;89:254–9.
Ilfeld BM, Sandhu NS, Loland VJ, Madison SJ, Suresh PJ, Mariano ER, Bishop ML, Schwartz AK, Lee DK. Ultrasound-guided (needle-in-plane) perineural catheter insertion: the effect of catheter-insertion distance on postoperative analgesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2011;36:261–5.
Antonakakis JG, Sites BD, Shiffrin J. Ultrasound-guided posterior approach for the placement of a continuous interscalene catheter. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009;34:64–8.
Francis J, Egeler C. Factors affecting perineural catheter dislocation rates. Br J Anaesth. 2014;112:758.
Ahn WS, Bahk JH, Lim YJ, Kim YC. The effect of introducer gauge, design and bevel direction on the deflection of spinal needles. Anaesthesia. 2002;57:1007–11.
Chin KJ, Perlas A, Chan VW, Brull R. Needle visualization in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: challenges and solutions. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008;33:532–44.
Bloc S, Ecoffey C, Dhonneur G. Controlling needle tip progression during ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia using the hydrolocalization technique. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008;33:382–3.
Marhofer D, Marhofer P, Triffterer L, Leonhardt M, Weber M, Zeitlinger M. Dislocation rates of perineural catheters: a volunteer study. Br J Anaesth. 2013;111:800–6.
Koscielniak-Nielsen ZJ, Rasmussen H, Hesselbjerg L. Long-axis ultrasound imaging of the nerves and advancement of perineural catheters under direct vision: a preliminary report of four cases. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008;33:477–82.
Wang AZ, Gu L, Zhou QH, Ni WZ, Jiang W. Ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty: catheter perpendicular to the nerve versus catheter parallel to the nerve. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35:127–31.
Guerci P, Novy E, Guibert J, Vial F, Malinovsky JM, Bouaziz H. Inadvertent peripheral nerve catheter shearing occurring during ultrasound guidance. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2013;32:364–7.
Dhir S, Ganapathy S. Use of ultrasound guidance and contrast enhancement: a study of continuous infraclavicular brachial plexus approach. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2008;52:338–42.
Swenson JD, Davis JJ, DeCou JA. A novel approach for assessing catheter position after ultrasound-guided placement of continuous interscalene block. Anesth Analg. 2008;106:1015–6. table
Elsharkawy H, Salmasi V, Abd-Elsayed A, Turan A. Identification of location of nerve catheters using pumping maneuver and M-Mode-a novel technique. J Clin Anesth. 2015;27:325–30.
Kan JM, Harrison TK, Kim TE, Howard SK, Kou A, Mariano ER. An in vitro study to evaluate the utility of the “air test” to infer perineural catheter tip location. J Ultrasound Med. 2013;32:529–33.
Jeng CL, Torrillo TM, Rosenblatt MA. Complications of peripheral nerve blocks. Br J Anaesth. 2010;105(Suppl 1):i97–107.
Fredrickson M, Harrop-Griffiths W. Death by regional block: can the analgesic benefits ever outweigh the risks? Anaesthesia. 2012;67:1071–5.
Levine M, Latmore M, Vandepitte C, Gadsden J, Hadzic A. It is 3 a.m....do you know where your catheter tip is? Br J Anaesth. 2014;112:757–8.
Cook LB. Unsuspected extradural catheterization in an interscalene block. Br J Anaesth. 1991;67:473–5.
Faust A, Fournier R, Hagon O, Hoffmeyer P, Gamulin Z. Partial sensory and motor deficit of ipsilateral lower limb after continuous interscalene brachial plexus block. Anesth Analg. 2006;102:288–90.
Lekhak B, Bartley C, Conacher ID, Nouraei SM. Total spinal anaesthesia in association with insertion of a paravertebral catheter. Br J Anaesth. 2001;86:280–2.
Litz RJ, Vicent O, Wiessner D, Heller AR. Misplacement of a psoas compartment catheter in the subarachnoid space. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2004;29:60–4.
Mahoudeau G, Gaertner E, Launoy A, Ocquidant P, Loewenthal A. Interscalenic block: accidental catheterization of the epidural space. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 1995;14:438–41.
Pousman RM, Mansoor Z, Sciard D. Total spinal anesthetic after continuous posterior lumbar plexus block. Anesthesiology. 2003;98:1281–2.
Souron V, Reiland Y, De TA, Delaunay L, Lafosse L. Interpleural migration of an interscalene catheter. Anesth Analg. 2003;97:1200–1.
Tuominen MK, Pere P, Rosenberg PH. Unintentional arterial catheterization and bupivacaine toxicity associated with continuous interscalene brachial plexus block. Anesthesiology. 1991;75:356–8.
Yanovski B, Gaitini L, Volodarski D, Ben-David B. Catastrophic complication of an interscalene catheter for continuous peripheral nerve block analgesia. Anaesthesia. 2012;67:1166–9.
Capdevila X, Pirat P, Bringuier S, Gaertner E, Singelyn F, Bernard N, Choquet O, Bouaziz H, Bonnet F. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in hospital wards after orthopedic surgery: a multicenter prospective analysis of the quality of postoperative analgesia and complications in 1,416 patients. Anesthesiology. 2005;103:1035–45.
Compere V, Rey N, Baert O, Ouennich A, Fourdrinier V, Roussignol X, Beccari R, Dureuil B. Major complications after 400 continuous popliteal sciatic nerve blocks for post-operative analgesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009;53:339–45.
Fredrickson MJ, Ball CM, Dalgleish AJ. Successful continuous interscalene analgesia for ambulatory shoulder surgery in a private practice setting. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008;33:122–8.
Poulton B, Young P. A novel method for epidural catheter fixation. Anaesthesia. 2000;55:1141–2.
Borgeat A, Ekatodramis G, Kalberer F, Benz C. Acute and nonacute complications associated with interscalene block and shoulder surgery: a prospective study. Anesthesiology. 2001;95:875–80.
de Jose MB, Banus E, Navarro-Egea M, Banchs RJ. Tips and tricks to facilitate ultrasound-guided placement of peripheral nerve catheters in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2011;21:974–9.
Rose GL, McLarney JT. Retained continuous lumbar plexus block catheter. J Clin Anesth. 2009;21:464–5.
Clark MX, O'Hare K, Gorringe J, Oh T. The effect of the Lockit epidural catheter clamp on epidural migration: a controlled trial. Anaesthesia. 2001;56:865–70.
Kindler CH. Another use for the LOCKIT epidural catheter clamp. Anaesthesia. 2004;59:836.
Mariano ER, Afra R, Loland VJ, Sandhu NS, Bellars RH, Bishop ML, Cheng GS, Choy LP, Maldonado RC, Ilfeld BM. Continuous interscalene brachial plexus block via an ultrasound-guided posterior approach: a randomized, triple-masked, placebo-controlled study. Anesth Analg. 2009;108:1688–94.
Klein SM, Nielsen KC, Buckenmaier III CC, Kamal AS, Rubin Y, Steele SM. 2-octyl cyanoacrylate glue for the fixation of continuous peripheral nerve catheters. Anesthesiology. 2003;98:590–1.
Bloc S, Garnier T, Mercadal L, Roy M, Dhonneur G. Evaluation of synthetic glue for the fixation of continuous peripheral nerve catheters. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2008;27:103–5.
Singer AJ, Quinn JV, Hollander JE. The cyanoacrylate topical skin adhesives. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26:490–6.
Bookland MJ, Sukul V, Connolly PJ. Use of a cyanoacrylate skin adhesive to reduce external ventricular drain infection rates. J Neurosurg. 2014;121:189–94.
Kerwat K, Eberhart L, Kerwat M, Horth D, Wulf H, Steinfeldt T, Wiesmann T. Chlorhexidine gluconate dressings reduce bacterial colonization rates in epidural and peripheral regional catheters. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:149785.
Capdevila X, Bringuier S, Borgeat A. Infectious risk of continuous peripheral nerve blocks. Anesthesiology. 2009;110:182–8.
Reichel M, Heisig P, Kampf G. Identification of variables for aerobic bacterial density at clinically relevant skin sites. J Hosp Infect. 2011;78:5–10.
Cuvillon P, Ripart J, Lalourcey L, Veyrat E, L'Hermite J, Boisson C, Thouabtia E, Eledjam JJ. The continuous femoral nerve block catheter for postoperative analgesia: bacterial colonization, infectious rate and adverse effects. Anesth Analg. 2001;93:1045–9.
Timsit JF, Bruneel F, Cheval C, Mamzer MF, Garrouste-Org WM, Misset B, Chevret S, Regnier B, Carlet J. Use of tunneled femoral catheters to prevent catheter-related infection. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:729–35.
Compere V, Legrand JF, Guitard PG, Azougagh K, Baert O, Ouennich A, Fourdrinier V, Frebourg N, Dureuil B. Bacterial colonization after tunneling in 402 perineural catheters: a prospective study. Anesth Analg. 2009;108:1326–30.
Lai NM, Chaiyakunapruk N, Lai NA, O'Riordan E, Pau WS, Saint S. Catheter impregnation, coating or bonding for reducing central venous catheter-related infections in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;6:CD007878.
Bergman BD, Hebl JR, Kent J, Horlocker TT. Neurologic complications of 405 consecutive continuous axillary catheters. Anesth Analg. 2003;96:247–52. table
Neuburger M, Breitbarth J, Reisig F, Lang D, Buttner J. Complications and adverse events in continuous peripheral regional anesthesia Results of investigations on 3,491 catheters. Anaesthesist. 2006;55:33–40.
Adam F, Jaziri S, Chauvin M. Psoas abscess complicating femoral nerve block catheter. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:230–1.
Compere V, Cornet C, Fourdrinier V, Maitre AM, Mazirt N, Biga N, Dureuil B. Thigh abscess as a complication of continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block. Br J Anaesth. 2005;95:255–6.
Capdevila X, Jaber S, Pesonen P, Borgeat A, Eledjam JJ. Acute neck cellulitis and mediastinitis complicating a continuous interscalene block. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:1419–21.
Morin AM, Kerwat K, Buttner J, Litz RJ, Koch T, Mutters R. Hygieneempfehlungen für die Anlage und weiterführende Versorgung von Regionalanästhesie-Verfahren. Anästh Intensivmed. 2006;47:1–9.
Bomberg H, Kubulus C, List F, Albert N, Schmitt K, Graber S, Kessler P, Steinfeldt T, Standl T, Gottschalk A, Wirtz SP, Burgard G, Geiger P, Spies CD, Volk T. Diabetes: a risk factor for catheter-associated infections. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2015;40:16–21.
Morin AM, Kerwat KM, Klotz M, Niestolik R, Ruf VE, Wulf H, Zimmermann S, Eberhart LH. Risk factors for bacterial catheter colonization in regional anaesthesia. BMC Anesthesiol. 2005;5:1.
Batai I, Bogar L, Juhasz V, Batai R, Kerenyi M. A comparison of the antimicrobial property of lidocaine/prilocaine cream (EMLA) and an alcohol-based disinfectant on intact human skin flora. Anesth Analg. 2009;108:666–8.
Bures E, Rivet P, Estebe JP. Difficulty of regional anaesthesia catheter withdrawing due to a knot: three case reports. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2009;28:493–5.
Hubner T, Gerber H. Knotting of a catheter in the plexus brachialis. A rare complication. Anaesthesist. 2003;52:606–7.
Motamed C, Bouaziz H, Mercier FJ, Benhamou D. Knotting of a femoral catheter. Reg Anesth. 1997;22:486–7.
Burgher AH, Hebl JR. Minimally invasive retrieval of knotted nonstimulating peripheral nerve catheters. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007;32:162–6.
Brenier G, Salces A, Magues JP, Fuzier R. Peripheral nerve catheter entrapment is not always related to knotting. Can J Anaesth. 2010;57:183–4.
Tran QD, Gordon A, Asenjo JF, De La Cuadra-Fontaine JC. Retained and cut stimulating infraclavicular catheter. Can J Anaesth. 2005;52:998–9.
Lee BH, Goucke CR. Shearing of a peripheral nerve catheter. Anesth Analg. 2002;95:760–1. table
Schroeder KM, Jacobs RX, Amlong CA, Rogers WK. Dangers associated with cutting and entrapment of stimulating peripheral nerve catheters. J Clin Anesth. 2013;25:83–4.
Clendenen SR, Robards CB, Wang RD, Greengrass RA. Case report: continuous interscalene block associated with neck hematoma and postoperative sepsis. Anesth Analg. 2010;110:1236–8.
Byrne KP, Freeman VY. Force of removal for untunnelled, tunnelled and double-tunnelled peripheral nerve catheters. Anaesthesia. 2014;69:245–8.
Arnaoutoglou HM, Tzimas PG, Papadopoulos GS. Knotting of an epidural catheter: a rare complication. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. 2007;58:55–7.
Hobaika AB. Breakage of epidural catheters: etiology, prevention, and management. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 2008;58:227–33.
Mitra R, Fleischmann K. Management of the sheared epidural catheter: is surgical extraction really necessary? J Clin Anesth. 2007;19:310–4.
Owens S, Erturk MA, Ouanes JP, Murphy JD, Wu CL, Bottomley PA. Evaluation of epidural and peripheral nerve catheter heating during magnetic resonance imaging. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2014;39:534–9.
Kendall MC, Nader A, Maniker RB, McCarthy RJ. Removal of a knotted stimulating femoral nerve catheter using a saline bolus injection. Local Reg Anesth. 2010;3:31–4.
Offerdahl MR, Lennon RL, Horlocker TT. Successful removal of a knotted fascia iliaca catheter: principles of patient positioning for peripheral nerve catheter extraction. Anesth Analg. 2004;99:1550–2.
Fredrickson MJ, Kilfoyle DH. Neurological complication analysis of 1000 ultrasound guided peripheral nerve blocks for elective orthopaedic surgery: a prospective study. Anaesthesia. 2009;64:836–44.
Barrington MJ, Watts SA, Gledhill SR, Thomas RD, Said SA, Snyder GL, Tay VS, Jamrozik K. Preliminary results of the Australasian Regional Anaesthesia Collaboration: a prospective audit of more than 7000 peripheral nerve and plexus blocks for neurologic and other complications. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009;34:534–41.
Borgeat A, Dullenkopf A, Ekatodramis G, Nagy L. Evaluation of the lateral modified approach for continuous interscalene block after shoulder surgery. Anesthesiology. 2003;99:436–42.
Watts SA, Sharma DJ. Long-term neurological complications associated with surgery and peripheral nerve blockade: outcomes after 1065 consecutive blocks. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2007;35:24–31.
Wiegel M, Gottschaldt U, Hennebach R, Hirschberg T, Reske A. Complications and adverse effects associated with continuous peripheral nerve blocks in orthopedic patients. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:1578–82. table
Brull R, McCartney CJ, Chan VW, El-Beheiry H. Neurological complications after regional anesthesia: contemporary estimates of risk. Anesth Analg. 2007;104:965–74.
Moayeri N, Groen GJ. Differences in quantitative architecture of sciatic nerve may explain differences in potential vulnerability to nerve injury, onset time, and minimum effective anesthetic volume. Anesthesiology. 2009;111:1128–34.
Reina MA, Lopez A, De Andres JA, Maches F. Possibility of nerve lesions related to peripheral nerve blocks. A study of the human sciatic nerve using different needles. Rev Esp Anestesiol Reanim. 2003;50:274–83.
Sala-Blanch X, Pomes J, Matute P, Valls-Sole J, Carrera A, Tomas X, Garcia-Diez AI. Intraneural injection during anterior approach for sciatic nerve block. Anesthesiology. 2004;101:1027–30.
Gadsden J, McCally C, Hadzic A. Monitoring during peripheral nerve blockade. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2010;23:656–61.
Moayeri N, Krediet AC, Welleweerd JC, Bleys RL, Groen GJ. Early ultrasonographic detection of low-volume intraneural injection. Br J Anaesth. 2012;109:432–8.
Bickler P, Brandes J, Lee M, Bozic K, Chesbro B, Claassen J. Bleeding complications from femoral and sciatic nerve catheters in patients receiving low molecular weight heparin. Anesth Analg. 2006;103:1036–7.
Abrahams MS, Aziz MF, Fu RF, Horn JL. Ultrasound guidance compared with electrical neurostimulation for peripheral nerve block: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102:408–17.
Weller RS, Gerancher JC, Crews JC, Wade KL. Extensive retroperitoneal hematoma without neurologic deficit in two patients who underwent lumbar plexus block and were later anticoagulated. Anesthesiology. 2003;98:581–5.
Chelly JE, Szczodry DM, Neumann KJ. International normalized ratio and prothrombin time values before the removal of a lumbar plexus catheter in patients receiving warfarin after total hip replacement. Br J Anaesth. 2008;101:250–4.
Chelly JE, Schilling D. Thromboprophylaxis and peripheral nerve blocks in patients undergoing joint arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2008;23:350–4.
Buckenmaier III CC, Shields CH, Auton AA, Evans SL, Croll SM, Bleckner LL, Brown DS, Stojadinovic A. Continuous peripheral nerve block in combat casualties receiving low-molecular weight heparin. Br J Anaesth. 2006;97:874–7.
Idestrup C, Sawhney M, Nix C, Kiss A. The incidence of hematoma formation in patients with continuous femoral catheters following total knee arthroplasty while receiving rivaroxaban as thromboprophylaxis: an observational study. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2014;39:414–7.
Gogarten W, Vandermeulen E, Van AH, Kozek S, Llau JV, Samama CM. Regional anaesthesia and antithrombotic agents: recommendations of the European Society of Anaesthesiology. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2010;27:999–1015.
Barrington MJ, Kluger R. Ultrasound guidance reduces the risk of local anesthetic systemic toxicity following peripheral nerve blockade. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2013;38:289–99.
Mather LE, Copeland SE, Ladd LA. Acute toxicity of local anesthetics: underlying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30:553–66.
Neal JM. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia and patient safety: An evidence-based analysis. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35:S59–67.
Auroy Y, Narchi P, Messiah A, Litt L, Rouvier B, Samii K. Serious complications related to regional anesthesia: results of a prospective survey in France. Anesthesiology. 1997;87:479–86.
Nye ZB, Horn JL, Crittenden W, Abrahams MS, Aziz MF. Ambulatory continuous posterior lumbar plexus blocks following hip arthroscopy: a review of 213 cases. J Clin Anesth. 2013;25:268–74.
Harvey EJ, Sanders DW, Shuler MS, Lawendy AR, Cole AL, Alqahtani SM, Schmidt AH. What's new in acute compartment syndrome? J Orthop Trauma. 2012;26:699–702.
Davis ET, Harris A, Keene D, Porter K, Manji M. The use of regional anaesthesia in patients at risk of acute compartment syndrome. Injury. 2006;37:128–33.
Hyder N, Kessler S, Jennings AG, De Boer PG. Compartment syndrome in tibial shaft fracture missed because of a local nerve block. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996;78:499–500.
Mannion S, Capdevila X. Acute compartment syndrome and the role of regional anesthesia. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2010;48:85–105.
Mar GJ, Barrington MJ, McGuirk BR. Acute compartment syndrome of the lower limb and the effect of postoperative analgesia on diagnosis. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102:3–11.
Munk-Andersen H, Laustrup TK. Compartment syndrome diagnosed in due time by breakthrough pain despite continuous peripheral nerve block. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2013;57:1328–30.
Walker BJ, Noonan KJ, Bosenberg AT. Evolving compartment syndrome not masked by a continuous peripheral nerve block: evidence-based case management. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012;37:393–7.
Hocking G. Re: The use of regional anaesthesia in patients at risk of acute compartment syndrome. Injury. 2007;38:872–3.
Urmey WF, Talts KH, Sharrock NE. One hundred percent incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis associated with interscalene brachial plexus anesthesia as diagnosed by ultrasonography. Anesth Analg. 1991;72:498–503.
Urmey WF, McDonald M. Hemidiaphragmatic paresis during interscalene brachial plexus block: effects on pulmonary function and chest wall mechanics. Anesth Analg. 1992;74:352–7.
Renes SH, Rettig HC, Gielen MJ, Wilder-Smith OH, van Geffen GJ. Ultrasound-guided low-dose interscalene brachial plexus block reduces the incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paresis. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2009;34:498–502.
Borgeat A, Perschak H, Bird P, Hodler J, Gerber C. Patient-controlled interscalene analgesia with ropivacaine 0.2 % versus patient-controlled intravenous analgesia after major shoulder surgery: effects on diaphragmatic and respiratory function. Anesthesiology. 2000;92:102–8.
Pere P, Pitkanen M, Rosenberg PH, Bjorkenheim JM, Linden H, Salorinne Y, Tuominen M. Effect of continuous interscalene brachial plexus block on diaphragm motion and on ventilatory function. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1992;36:53–7.
Renes SH, van Geffen GJ, Rettig HC, Gielen MJ, Scheffer GJ. Minimum effective volume of local anesthetic for shoulder analgesia by ultrasound-guided block at root C7 with assessment of pulmonary function. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35:529–34.
Tuominen M, Tarkkila P. Diaphragmatic motion during continuous interscalene brachial plexus block. Reg Anesth. 1995;20:543–4.
Tsui BC, Dillane D. Reducing and washing off local anesthetic for continuous interscalene block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2014;39:175–6.
Ip VH, Tsui BC. Continuous interscalene block: the good, the bad and the refined spread. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2012;56:526–30.
Souron V, Reiland Y, Delaunay L. Pleural effusion and chest pain after continuous interscalene brachial plexus block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2003;28:535–8.
Yang CW, Jung SM, Cho CK, Kwon HU, Kang PS, Lim YS, Oh JY, Yi JW. Pleural effusion and atelectasis during continuous interscalene brachial plexus block—A case report. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2010;58:95–8.
Sardesai AM, Chakrabarti AJ, Denny NM. Lower lobe collapse during continuous interscalene brachial plexus local anesthesia at home. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2004;29:65–8.
Church S, Robinson TN, Angles EM, Tran ZV, Wallace JI. Postoperative falls in the acute hospital setting: characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes in males. Am J Surg. 2011;201:197–202.
Ackerman DB, Trousdale RT, Bieber P, Henely J, Pagnano MW, Berry DJ. Postoperative patient falls on an orthopedic inpatient unit. J Arthroplasty. 2010;25:10–4.
Oliver D, Daly F, Martin FC, McMurdo ME. Risk factors and risk assessment tools for falls in hospital in-patients: a systematic review. Age Ageing. 2004;33:122–30.
Johnson RL, Kopp SL, Hebl JR, Erwin PJ, Mantilla CB. Falls and major orthopaedic surgery with peripheral nerve blockade: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2013;110:518–28.
Kandasami M, Kinninmonth AW, Sarungi M, Baines J, Scott NB. Femoral nerve block for total knee replacement—a word of caution. Knee. 2009;16:98–100.
Wasserstein D, Farlinger C, Brull R, Mahomed N, Gandhi R. Advanced age, obesity and continuous femoral nerve blockade are independent risk factors for inpatient falls after primary total knee arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2013;28:1121–4.
Chelly JE, Ghisi D, Fanelli A. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in acute pain management. Br. J Anaesth. 2010;105(Suppl 1):i86–96.
Stevens JE, Mizner RL, Snyder-Mackler L. Quadriceps strength and volitional activation before and after total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. J Orthop Res. 2003;21:775–9.
Johnson RL, Duncan CM, Ahn KS, Schroeder DR, Horlocker TT, Kopp SL. Fall-prevention strategies and patient characteristics that impact fall rates after total knee arthroplasty. Anesth Analg. 2014;119:1113–8.
Pelt CE, Anderson AW, Anderson MB, Van DC, Peters CL. Postoperative falls after total knee arthroplasty in patients with a femoral nerve catheter: can we reduce the incidence? J Arthroplasty. 2014;29:1154–7.
Saporito A, Sturini E, Petri J, Borgeat A, Aguirre JA. Case report: unusual complication during outpatient continuous regional popliteal analgesia. Can J Anaesth. 2012;59:958–62.
Clarke HD, Timm VL, Goldberg BR, Hattrup SJ. Preoperative patient education reduces in-hospital falls after total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2012;470:244–9.
Bauer M, Wang L, Onibonoje OK, Parrett C, Sessler DI, Mounir-Soliman L, Zaky S, Krebs V, Buller LT, Donohue MC, Stevens-Lapsley JE, Ilfeld BM. Continuous femoral nerve blocks: decreasing local anesthetic concentration to minimize quadriceps femoris weakness. Anesthesiology. 2012;116:665–72.
Ilfeld BM, Moeller LK, Mariano ER, Loland VJ, Stevens-Lapsley JE, Fleisher AS, Girard PJ, Donohue MC, Ferguson EJ, Ball ST. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks: is local anesthetic dose the only factor, or do concentration and volume influence infusion effects as well? Anesthesiology. 2010;112:347–54.
Madison SJ, Monahan AM, Agarwal RR, Furnish TJ, Mascha EJ, Xu Z, Donohue MC, Morgan AC, Ilfeld BM. A randomized, triple-masked, active-controlled investigation of the relative effects of dose, concentration, and infusion rate for continuous popliteal-sciatic nerve blocks in volunteers. Br J Anaesth. 2015;114:121–9.
Brodner G, Buerkle H, Van AH, Lambert R, Schweppe-Hartenauer ML, Wempe C, Gogarten W. Postoperative analgesia after knee surgery: a comparison of three different concentrations of ropivacaine for continuous femoral nerve blockade. Anesth Analg. 2007;105:256–62.
Head S, Enneking FK. Infusate contamination in regional anesthesia: what every anesthesiologist should know. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:1412–8.
Hebl JR, Niesen AD. Infectious complications of regional anesthesia. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2011;24:573–80.
Ilfeld BM, Le LT, Ramjohn J, Loland VJ, Wadhwa AN, Gerancher JC, Renehan EM, Sessler DI, Shuster JJ, Theriaque DW, Maldonado RC, Mariano ER. The effects of local anesthetic concentration and dose on continuous infraclavicular nerve blocks: a multicenter, randomized, observer-masked, controlled study. Anesth Analg. 2009;108:345–50.
Le LT, Loland VJ, Mariano ER, Gerancher JC, Wadhwa AN, Renehan EM, Sessler DI, Shuster JJ, Theriaque DW, Maldonado RC, Ilfeld BM. Effects of local anesthetic concentration and dose on continuous interscalene nerve blocks: a dual-center, randomized, observer-masked, controlled study. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008;33:518–25.
Bleckner LL, Bina S, Kwon KH, McKnight G, Dragovich A, Buckenmaier III CC. Serum ropivacaine concentrations and systemic local anesthetic toxicity in trauma patients receiving long-term continuous peripheral nerve block catheters. Anesth Analg. 2010;110:630–4.