Skip to main content

Neurovascular Disease

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Nursing Care of the Pediatric Neurosurgery Patient

Abstract

Although cases of cerebral vascular disease in the pediatric population are seen less frequently than their adult counterparts, these anomalies have the potential for significant morbidity and mortality, given the life expectancy in this age group. In recent years, there have been advancements in the care and management of adults with neurovascular issues such as aneurysm and stroke that are based on high-quality clinical studies. For children, most of the data in the literature is based on small sample occurrences and is often retrospective. Despite this, advancements in management, especially endovascular and surgical modalities, has led to improved outcomes in this age group.

The vast majority of pediatric malformations fall into one of the following groups: aneurysm, cavernous malformation (CM), vein of Galen malformation (VGAM), venous angiomas, arteriovenous malformations (AVM), and moyamoya. The latter two are the most common causes of hemorrhagic and ischemic pediatric stroke in children older than 1 year, respectively.

This chapter summarizes the occurrences, causes of vascular lesions, pathophysiology, and treatments. Also included are patient examples that help to make the clinical picture easier to understand.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 74.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  • Abe M, Hagihara N, Tabuchi K, Uchino A, Miyasaka Y (2003) Histologically classified venous angiomas of the brain: a controversy. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 43:1–11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Agrawal N, Johnston SC, Wu YW, Sidney S, Fullerton HJ (2009) Imaging data reveal a higher pediatric stroke incidence than prior US estimates. Stroke 40(11):3415–3421. doi:10.1161/strokeaha.109.564633

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Ali MJ, Bendok B, Rosenblatt S et al (2003) Recurrence of pediatric cerebral arteriovenous malformations after angiographically documented resection. Pediatr Neurosurg 39:32–38

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Alvarez H, Garcia Monaco R, Rodesch G, Sachet M, Krings T, Lasjaunias P (2007) Vein of galen aneurysmal malformations. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 17(2):189–206. doi:10.1016/j.nic.2007.02.005 [Review]

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Amlie-Lefond, C., Bernard, T. J., Sebire, G., Friedman, N. R., Heyer, G. L., Lerner, N. B.,... Fullerton, H. J. (2009). Predictors of cerebral arteriopathy in children with arterial ischemic stroke: results of the International Pediatric Stroke Study. Circulation, 119(10), 1417–1423. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.108.806307

  • Aryan HE, Giannotta SL, Fukushima T, Park MS, Ozgur BM, Levy ML (2006) Aneurysms in children: review of 15 years experience. J Clin Neurosci 13:188–192

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Asaithambi G, Advil MM, Shah KM, Jordan LC, Qureshi AI (2014) Patterns of treatment and associated short-term outcomes of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in children. Childs Nerv Syst 30:1697–1700

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Balaci E, Sumner TE, Auringer ST, Cox TD (1999) Diffuse neonatal hemangiomatosis with extensive involvement of the brain and cervical spinal cord. Pediatr Radiol 29(6):441–443. doi:10.1007/s002470050612

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bar-Sever, Z., Horev, G., Lubin, E., Kornreich, L., Naor, N., Ziv, N.,... Grunebaum, M. (1994). A rare coexistence of a multicentric hepatic hemangioendothelioma with a large brain hemangioma in a preterm infant. Pediatr Radiol, 24(2), 141–142.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beez T, Steiger H, Hanggi D (2016) Evolution of management of intracranial aneurysms in children: a systemic review of the modern literature. J Child Neurol 31(6):773–783

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Beslow LA, Licht DJ, Smith SE, Storm PB, Heuer GG, Zimmerman RA, Feiler AM, Kasner SE, Ichord RN, Jordan LC (2010) Predictors of outcome in childhood intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.568071

    PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Bhardwaj RD, Auguste KI, Kulkarni AV, Dirks PB, Drake JM, Rutka JT (2009) Management of pediatric brainstem cavernous malformations: experience over 20 years at the Hospital for Sick Children. J Neurosurg Pediatr 4:458–464

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bigi S, Capone Mori A, Steinlin M, Remonda L, Landolt H, Boltshauser E (2011) Cavernous malformations of the central nervous system in children: presentation, treatment and outcome of 20 cases. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 15:109–116

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Blaser SI, Illner A, Castillo M, Hedlund GL, Osborn AG (2003) Pocket radiologist Peds Neuro top 100 diagnoses, 1st edn. WB Saunders, Utah

    Google Scholar 

  • Boone C, Caplan JM, Garzon-Muvdi T, Yang W, Ye X, Groves ML, Tamargo RJ, Ahn ES, Huang J (2016) Hemorrhage risk in pediatric patients with multiple intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Pediatr Neurosurg. doi:10.1159/000444286

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Buckley DA, Hickey JV (2014) Cerebral aneurysms and arterial venous malformations and other cerebrovascular anomalies. In: Hickey JV (ed) The clinical practice of neurological and neurosurgical nursing, 7th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia

    Google Scholar 

  • Cavanagh SJ, Gordon VL (2002) Grading scales used in the management of aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a critical review. J Neurosurg Nurs 34:288–295

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cheng A, Williams BA, Sivrahan BV (eds) (2003) The HSC handbook of pediatrics, 10th edn. Elsevier/Saunders, Toronto

    Google Scholar 

  • Chevret L, Durand P, Alvarez H, Lambert V, Caeymax L, Rodesch G, Devictor D, Lasjaunias P (2002) Prognosis significance of hemodynamic parameters in neonates presenting with severe heart failure owing to vein of Galen arteriovenous malformations. Intensive Care Med 28:1126–1130

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chow, M. L., Cooke, D. L., Fullerton, H. J., Amans, M. R., Narvid, J., Dowd, C. F.,... Hetts, S. W. (2015). Radiological and clinical features of vein of Galen malformations. J NeuroInterv Surg, 7(6), 443–448. doi:10.1136/neurintsurg-2013-011005

    Google Scholar 

  • Cohen JE, Boitsova S, Moscovici S, Itshayek E (2010) Concepts and controversies in the management of cerebral developmental venous anomalies. Isr Med Assoc J 12(11):703–706

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Courville CB (1963) Morphology of small vascular malformations of the brain. With particular reference to the mechanism of their drainage. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 22:274–284

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Coutinho J, de Bruijn SF, Deveber G, Stam J (2011) Anticoagulation for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (8):Cd002005. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002005.pub2

  • Daenekindt T, Weyns F, Kho KH, Peuskens D, Engelborghs K, Wuyts J (2008) Giant intracranial capillary hemangioma associated with enlarged head circumference in a newborn. J Neurosurg Pediatr 1(6):488–492. doi:10.3171/ped/2008/1/6/488

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Darsaut TE, Guzman R, Marcellus ML, Edwards MS, Tian L, Do HM, Chang SD, Levy RP, Adler JR, Marks MP, Steinberg GK (2011) Management of pediatric intracranial arteriovenous malformations: experience with multimodality therapy. Neurosurgery. doi:10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182181c00

    Google Scholar 

  • Deeg K, Scarf J (1990) Colour Doppler imaging of arteriovenous malformation of the vein of Galen in a newborn. Neuroradiology 32:60–63

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Deloison B, Chalouhi GE, Sonigo P, Zerah M, Millischer AE, Dumez Y et al (2012) Hidden mortality of prenatally diagnosed vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: retrospective study and review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 40(6):652–658. doi:10.1002/uog.11188

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • DiRocco C, Iannelli A, Tamburrini G (1996) Cavernomas of the central nervous system in children. Acta Neurochir 138:1267–1274

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dlamini N, Billinghurst L, Kirkham FJ (2010) Cerebral venous sinus (sinovenous) thrombosis in children. Neurosurg Clin N Am 21(3):511–527

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Drucker DE (2006) Neurologic disorders. In: Nettina S (ed) Lippincott manual of nursing practice, 8th edn. Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 465–557

    Google Scholar 

  • Elixson EM (1992) Intracerebral arteriovenous malformations presenting as neonatal congestive heart failure. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 4:537–542

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ellis JA, Orr L, Ii PC, Anderson RC, Feldstein NA, Meyers PM (2012) Cognitive and functional status after vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation endovascular occlusion. World J Radiol 4(3):83–89. doi:10.4329/wjr.v4.i3.83

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Ersoy S, Mancini AJ (2005) Hemifacial infantile hemangioma with intracranial extension: a rare entity. Pediatr Dermatol 22(4):309–313. doi:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2005.22405.x

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ferro JM, Canhao P (2008) Acute treatment of cerebral venous and dural sinus thrombosis. Curr Options Neurol Treat 10(2):126–137

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fortuna A, Ferrante L, Acqui L, Mastronardi L, Acqui M, d’Addetta R (1989) Cerebral cavernous angioma in children. Childs Nerv Syst 5:201–207

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Foy AB, Wetjen N, Pollock BE (2010) Stereotactic radiosurgery for pediatric arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurg Clin N Am 21:457–461

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Frawley GP, Dargaville PA, Mitchell PJ, Tress BM, Loughnan P (2002) Clinical course and medical management of neonates with severe cardiac failure related to vein of Galen malformation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 87:144–149

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Friedlander RM (2007) Arteriovenous malformations of the brain. N Engl J Med 356(26):2704–2712

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Friedman DM, Verma R, Madrid M, Wisoff JH, Berenstein A (1993) Recent improvement in outcome using transcatheter embolization techniques for neonatal aneurysmal malformations of the vein of Galen. Pediatrics 91:583–596

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Frim DM, Gupta N, Scott RM (2001) Cavernous malformations. In: McLone DG (ed) Pediatric neurosurgery. Surgery of the developing nervous system. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1097–1104

    Google Scholar 

  • Fukui M (1997) Current state of study on Moyamoya disease in Japan. Surg Neurol 47:138–143

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fullerton HJ, Aminoff AR, Ferriero DM, Gupta N, Dowd CF (2003) Neurodevelopmental outcome after endovascular treatment of vein of Galen. Neurology 61:1386–1390

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gailloud P, O’Riordan DP, Burger I, Levrier O, Jallo G, Tamargo RJ, Murphy KJ, Lehmann CU (2005) Diagnosis and management of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. J Perinatol 25:542–551

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gardner MA, Hills NK, Sidney S, Johnston SC, Fullerton HJ (2010) The 5-year direct medical cost of neonatal and childhood stroke in a population-based cohort. Neurology 74(5):372–378. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181cbcd48

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Gastelum E, Sear K, Hills N, Roddy E, Randazzo D, Chettout, Hess C, Cotter J, DA H-K, Fullerton H, Mueller S (2015) Rates and characteristics of radiographically detected intracerebral cavernous malformations after cranial radiation. J Child Neurol 30(7):842–849

    Google Scholar 

  • Giroud M, Lemesle M, Gouyon JB, Nivelon JL, Milan C, Dumas R (1995) Cerebrovascular disease in children under 16 years of age in the city of Dijon, France: a study of incidence and clinical features from 1985 to 1993. J Clin Epidemiol 48(11):1343–1348

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gökçe E, Acu B, Beyhan M, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of developmental venous anomalies. Clin Neuroradiol 2014;24:135–43

    Google Scholar 

  • Gold AP, Ransohoff J, Carter S (1964) Vein of Galen malformation. Acta Neurol Scand 40:1–31

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldenberg NA, Bernard TJ, Fullerton HJ, Gordon A, deVeber G (2009) Antithrombotic treatments, outcomes, and prognostic factors in acute childhood-onset arterial ischaemic stroke: a multicentre, observational, cohort study. Lancet Neurol 8(12):1120–1127. doi:10.1016/s1474-4422(09)70241-8

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Griffiths PD, Blaser S, Armstrong D et al (1998) Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations in children. Neuroradiology 40:324–331

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gross BA, Du R (2014) Diagnosis and treatment of vascular malformations of the brain. Curr Treat Options Neurol 16(1):279. doi:10.1007/s11940-013-0279-9

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gross BA, Du R, Orbach DB, Scott RM, Smith ER (2015) The natural history of cerebral cavernous malformations in children. Neurosurg Pediatr 16:1–6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gross BA, Smith ER, Scott RM, Orbach DB (2014) Intracranial aneurysms in the youngest patients: characteristics and treatment challenges. Pediatr Neurosurg 15(50):18–25

    Google Scholar 

  • Gulati S, Kalra V (2002) An uncommon variety of vein of Galen malformation. Indian Pediatr 39(3):307–308 [Case Reports]

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gupta AK, Varma DR (2004) Vein of Galen malformations: review. Neurol India 52(1):43–53 [Review]

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gupta AK, Rao VR, Varma DR, Kapilamoorthy TR, Kesavadas C, Krishnamoorthy T, Purkayastha S (2006) Evaluation, management, and long-term follow up of vein of Galen malformations. J Neurosurg 105(1):26–33. doi:10.3171/jns.2006.105.1.26 [Case Reports]

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hacein-Bey L, Konstas AA, Pile-Spellman J (2014) Natural history, current concepts, classification, factors impacting endovascular therapy, and pathophysiology of cerebral and spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 121:64–75

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hannon K (1996) Pial synangiosis for treatment of Moyamoya syndrome in children. AORN J 64:540–560

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hetts SW, Narvid J, Sanai N, Lawton MT, Gupta N, Fullerton HJ, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halba VV (2009) Intracranial aneurysms in childhood. AJNR Am J Neuroradial 33:1315–1324

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heyer GL, Garzon MC (2008) An infant with a facial hemangioma and more. Semin Pediatr Neurol 15(4):160–163. doi:10.1016/j.spen.2008.10.001

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hinkle JL, Guanci MM, Stewart-Amidei C (2010) Cerebrovascular events of the nervous system. In: Bader MK, Littlejohns LR (eds) AANN core curriculum for neuroscience nurses, 5th edn. AANN, St. Louis

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoang S, Choudhri O, Edwards M, Guzman R (2009) Vein of Galen malformation. Neurosurg Focus 27(5):E8. doi:10.3171/2009.8.FOCUS09168 [Comparative Study Review]

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hoh B, Ogilvy C, Butler W et al (2000) Multimodality treatment of nongalenic arteriovenous malformations in pediatric patients. Neurosurgery 47:346–358

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Horgan M, Florma J, Spetzler RF (2006) Surgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations in children. In: Alexander M, Spetzler RF (eds) Pediatric neurovascular disease: surgical, endovascular, and medical management. Thieme, New York, pp 104–115

    Google Scholar 

  • Huang J, McGirt MJ, Gailloud P, Tamargo RJ (2005) Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population: case series and literature review. Surg Neurol 63:424–433

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Huber G, Henkes H, Hermes M, Felber S, Terstegge K, Piepgras U (1996) Regional association of developmental venous anomalies with angiographically occult vascular malformations. Eur Radiol 6(1):30–37

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Huhn SL, Lee JA, Steinberg GK (2006) Surgical treatment of vein of Galen malformations in children. In: Alexander M, Spetzler RF (eds) Pediatric neurovascular disease. Thieme, New York, pp 116–128

    Google Scholar 

  • Humphreys RP, Hoffman H, Drake J, Rutka J (1996) Choices in the 1990s for the management of pediatric cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Pediatr Neurosurg 25:277–285

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ibrahimi DM, Tamargo RJ, Ahn ES (2010) Moyamoya disease in children. Childs Nerv Syst 26(10):1297–1308. doi:10.1007/s00381-010-1209-8 [Review]

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ichord RN, Benedict SL, Chan AK, Kirkham FJ, Nowak-Gottl U (2015) Paediatric cerebral sinovenous thrombosis: findings of the International Paediatric Stroke Study. Arch Dis Child 100(2):174–179. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2014-306382

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Imaizumi T, Hayashi K, Saito K, Osawa M, Fukuyama Y (1998) Long-term outcomes of pediatric moyamoya disease monitored to adulthood. Pediatr Neurol 18(4):321–325 [Comparative Study Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ipone T, Ikezaki K, Susazuki T (2000) Linkage analysis of Moyamoya disease on chromosome 6. J Child Neurol 15:179–182

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jaegar JR, Forbes RP, Dandy WE (1937) Bilateral congenital cerebral arteriovenous communication aneurysm. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 63:173–176

    Google Scholar 

  • Jalloh I, Dean AF, O’Donovan DG, Cross J, Garnett MR, Santarius T (2014) Giant intracranial hemangioma in a neonate. Acta Neurochir 156(6):1151–1154. doi:10.1007/s00701-014-2007-y

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jankowitz BT, Vora N, Jovin T, Horowitz M (2008) Treatment of pediatric intracranial vascular malformations using Onyx-18. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2(3):171–176

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jian BJ, Hetts SW, Lawton MT, Gupta N (2010) Pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurg Clin N Am 21:491–501

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jones BV, Linscott L, Koberlein G, Hummel TR, Leach JL (2015) Increased prevalence of developmental venous anomalies in children with intracranial neoplasms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 36(9):1782–1785. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A4352

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Judd CD, Chapman PR, Koch B, Shea CJ (2007) Intracranial infantile hemangiomas associated with PHACE syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28(1):25–29

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kakarla UK, Beres EJ, Ponce FA, Chang SW, Deshmukh VR, Bambakidis NC, Zabramski JM, Spetzler RF (2010) Microsurgical treatment of pediatric intracranial aneurysms: long-term angiographic and clinical outcomes. Neurosurgery 67:237–249

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kamezawa T, Hamada J, Niiro M, Kai Y, Ishimaru K, Kuratsu J (2005) Clinical implication of associated venous drainage in patients with cavernous malformations. J Neurosurg 102:24–28

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kang E, Friedman N, Mamoun I, Tamburro J, Golden A (2016) Beta blockade as treatment for intracranial infantile hemangioma: case report and literature review. Pediatr Neurol. doi:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2016.01.018

    Google Scholar 

  • Karikari IO, Selznick LA, Cummings TJ, George TM (2006) Capillary hemangioma of the fourth ventricle in an infant. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg 104(3 Suppl):188–191. doi:10.3171/ped.2006.104.3.188

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Khoo LT, Wallace MJ, McComb JG, Levy ML (1999) Pediatric aneurismal disease. In: Albright AL, Pollack I, Adelson PD (eds) Principles and practice of pediatric neurosurgery. Thieme, New York, pp 1133–1152

    Google Scholar 

  • Khurana VG (2005) Venous angiomas: developmental venous anomaly (DVA). Retrieved from http://www.brainaneurysm.com/dva.html. Accessed on 2011 Sept 19.

  • Kirton A, deVeber G (2006) Cerebral palsy secondary to perinatal ischemic stroke. Clin Perinatol 33:367–386

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kirton, A., Armstrong-Wells, J., Chang, T., Deveber, G., Rivkin, M. J., Hernandez, M.,... Ferriero, D. M. (2011). Symptomatic neonatal arterial ischemic stroke: the International Pediatric Stroke Study. Pediatrics, 128(6), e1402–1410. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-1148

    Google Scholar 

  • Kitagawa RS, Mawad ME, Whitehead WE, Curry DJ, Luerssen TG, Jea A (2009) Paraspinal arteriovenous malformations in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr 3:425–428

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kitamura F, Fuku M, Oka K, Masushima T, Kurokawa T, Hasuo K (1998) Moyamoya disease. Handb Clin Neurol 2:293–306

    Google Scholar 

  • Kodama N, Aoki Y, Hiraga H, Wada T, Suzuki J (1979) Electroencephalographic findings in children with moyamoya disease. Arch Neurol 36(1):16–19

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kondziolka D, Humphreys RP, Hoffman H et al (1992) Arteriovenous malformations of the brain in children: a forty year experience. Can J Neurol Sci 19:40–45

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kondziolka D, Pollock B, Lunsford LD (1999) Vascular malformations: conservative management, radiosurgery and embolization. In: Albright A, Pollack I, Adelson PD (eds) Principles and practice of pediatric neurosurgery. Thieme, New York, pp 1017–1031

    Google Scholar 

  • Krishna H, Wani AA, Behari S, Banerji D, Chhabra DK, Jain VK (2005) Intracranial aneurysms in patients 18 years of age or under, are they different from aneurysms in adult population? Acta Neurochir 147:469–476

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Larson J, Ball W, Bove K, Crone K, Tew J Jr (1998) Formation of intracerebral cavernous malformations after radiation treatment for central nervous system neoplasia in children. J Neurosurg 88:51–56

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lasjaunias P (1997) Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation. In: Lasjaunias P (ed) Vascular diseases in neonates. Infants and children. Springer, Berlin, pp 67–202

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Lasjaunias P, Burrows P, Planet C (1986) Developmental venous anomalies (DVA): the so-called venous angioma. Neurosurg Rev 9(3):233–242 [Review]

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lasjaunias PL, Chng SM, Sachet M, Alvarez H, Rodesch G, Garcia-Monaco R (2006) The management of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. Neurosurgery 59(5 Suppl 3):S184–S194 discussion S183–S113

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lasjaunias P, Garcia-Monaco R, Rodesch G, TerBruggeK ZM, Tardieu M, de Victor D (1991) Vein of Galen malformation. Endovascular management of 43 cases. Childs Nerv Syst 7:360–367

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lebas, A., Chabrier, S., Fluss, J., Gordon, K., Kossorotoff, M., Nowak-Gottl, U.,... Tardieu, M. (2012). EPNS/SFNP guideline on the anticoagulant treatment of cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in children and neonates. Eur J Paediatr Neurol, 16(3), 219–228. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn.2012.02.005

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee RR, Becher MW, Benson ML, Rigamonti D (1997) Brain capillary telangiectasia: MR imaging appearance and clinicohistopathologic findings. Radiology 205(3):797–805

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lee C, Pennington MA, Kenney CM 3rd (1996) MR evaluation of developmental venous anomalies: medullary venous anatomy of venous angiomas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 17(1):61–70

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Levrier O, Gailloud P, Souei M, Manera L, Brunel H, Raybaud CA (2004) Normal galenic drainage of the deep cerebral venous system in 2 cases of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM). Childs Nerv Syst 20:91–97

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Levy E, Niranjan A, Thompson T et al (2000) Radiosurgery for childhood intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery 47:834–842

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Li A-H, Armstrong D, terBrugge KG (2010) Endovascular treatment of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: management strategy and 21-year experience in Toronto. J Neurosurg Pediatr 7(1):3–10. doi:10.3171/2010.9.peds0956

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li D, Shu-Yu H, Tang J, Xiao X, Jia G, Wu Z, Zhang L, Zhang J (2014) Surgical management of pediatric brainstem cavernous malformations. J Neurosurg Pediatr 13:484–502

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Liu MC, Chen HC, Wu CH, Chen WH, Tsuei YS, Chen CC (2015) Time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography in the evaluation of intracranial vascular lesions and tumors: a pictorial essay of our experience. Can Assoc Radiol J 66(4):385–392. doi:10.1016/j.carj.2015.05.001

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lloyd-Jones D, Adams R et al (2009) Heart disease and stoke statistics 2009 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 119:el–e161

    Google Scholar 

  • Long DM, Seljeskog EL, Chou SN, French LA (1974) Giant arteriovenous malformations of infancy and childhood. J Neurosurg 40(3):304–312. doi:10.3171/jns.1974.40.3.0304

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lv X, Li Y, Jiang C, Wu Z (2009) Endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 30:851–856

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Maher CO, Meyer FB (2006) Surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms in children. In: Alexander MJ, Spetzler RF (eds) Pediatric neurovascular disease. Thieme, New York, pp 83–89

    Google Scholar 

  • Maity A, Shu H, Tan J et al (2004) Treatment of pediatric intracranial arteriovenous malformations with linear-accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery: the University of Pennsylvania experience. Pediatr Neurosurg 40:207–214

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mallick, A. A., Ganesan, V., Kirkham, F. J., Fallon, P., Hedderly, T., McShane, T.,... O’Callaghan, F. J. (2014). Childhood arterial ischaemic stroke incidence, presenting features, and risk factors: a prospective population-based study. Lancet Neurol, 13(1), 35–43. doi:10.1016/s1474-4422(13)70290-4

    Google Scholar 

  • Mawad ME (1994) Interventional radiology. In: Cheek WR (ed) Pediatric neurosurgery: surgery of the developing nervous system. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 539–544

    Google Scholar 

  • McCance KL, Huether SE (2002) Pathophysiology: the biologic basis for disease in adults children, 4th edn. Mosby, St. Louis

    Google Scholar 

  • McLaughlin MR, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Lunsford S, Lunsford LD (1998) The prospective natural history of cerebral venous malformations. Neurosurgery 43(2):195–200 discussion 200–201

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Metry, D. W., Haggstrom, A. N., Drolet, B. A., Baselga, E., Chamlin, S., Garzon, M.,... Frieden, I. J. (2006). A prospective study of PHACE syndrome in infantile hemangiomas: demographic features, clinical findings, and complications. Am J Med Genet A, 140(9), 975–986. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31189

    Google Scholar 

  • Metry DW, Hawrot A, Altman C, Frieden IJ (2004) Association of solitary, segmental hemangiomas of the skin with visceral hemangiomatosis. Arch Dermatol 140(5):591–596. doi:10.1001/archderm.140.5.591

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer P, Orliaguet G, Zerah M et al (2000) Emergency management of deeply comatose children with acute rupture of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Can J Anaesth 47:758–766

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Milandre L, Pellissier JF, Boudouresques G, Bonnefoi B, Ali Cherif A, Khalil R (1987) Non-hereditary multiple telangiectasias of the central nervous system. Report of two clinicopathological cases. J Neurol Sci 82(1–3):291–304

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell PJ, Rosenfeld JV, Dargarville P, Loughnan P, Ditchfield MR, Frawley G, Tress BM (2001) Endovascular management of vein of Galen aneurismal malformations presenting in the neonatal period. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 22:1403–1409

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Moharir MD, Shroff M, Pontigon AM, Askalan R, Yau I, Macgregor D, Deveber GA (2011) A prospective outcome study of neonatal cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. J Child Neurol 26(9):1137–1144. doi:10.1177/0883073811408094

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Monagle P, Chalmers E, Chan A, DeVeber G, Kirkham F, Massicotte P, Michelson AD (2008) Antithrombotic therapy in neonates and children: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th edition). Chest 133(6 Suppl):887s–968s. doi:10.1378/chest.08-0762

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Moore KL, Agur AM (1995) Essential clinical anatomy. Williams Wilkins, Toronto

    Google Scholar 

  • Murasko K, Oldfield E (1990) Vascular malformations of the spinal cord and dura. Neurosurg Clin N Am 1:631–652

    Google Scholar 

  • Muszynski C, Berenstein A (2001) Interventional radiology. In: McClone D (ed) Pediatric neurosurgery: surgery of the developing nervous system. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1155–1171

    Google Scholar 

  • Nagaraja D, Verma A, Taly AB, Kumar MV, Jayakumar PN (1994) Cerebrovascular disease in children. Acta Neurol Scand 90(4):251–255

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Niazi TN, Klimo P, Anderson RCE, Raffel C (2010) Diagnosis and management of arteriovenous malformations in children. Neurosurg Clin N Am 21:443–456

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ohaegbulam C, Magge S, Scott M (1999) Moya Moya disease. In: Albright AL, Pollack I, Adelson PD (eds) Principles and practice of pediatric neurosurgery. Thieme, New York, pp 1077–1089

    Google Scholar 

  • Oza VS, Wang E, Berenstein A, Waner M, Lefton D, Wells J, Blei F (2008) PHACES association: a neuroradiologic review of 17 patients. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29(4):807–813. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A0937

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Paramasivam S, Toma N, Niimi Y, Berenstein A (2013) Development, clinical presentation and endovascular management of congenital intracranial pial arteriovenous fistulas. J Neurointervent Surg 5:184–190. doi:10.1136/neurintsurg-2011-010241

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pasqualin A, Mazza C, Da Pian R, Dala BB (1982) Midline giant arterio-venous malformations in infants. Acta Neurochir 64:259–271

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Perkins E, Stephens J, Xiang H, Lo W (2009) The cost of pediatric stroke acute care in the United States. Stroke 40(8):2820–2827. doi:10.1161/strokeaha.109.548156

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Philpott C, Wray A, MacGregor D, Coleman L (2012) Dural infantile hemangioma masquerading as a skull vault lesion. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 33(6):E85–E87. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A2752

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Poindexter G, Metry DW, Barkovich AJ, Frieden IJ (2007) PHACE syndrome with intracerebral hemangiomas, heterotopia, and endocrine dysfunction. Pediatr Neurol 36(6):402–406. doi:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2007.01.017

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Porter R, Detweiler P, Spetzler R, Lawton M, Baskin J, Derksen P, Zabramski J (1999) Cavernous malformations of the brainstem: experience with 100 patients. J Neurosurg 90:50–58

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Porter P, Willinsky R, Harper W, Wallace C (1997) Cerebral cavernous malformations: natural history and prognosis after clinical deterioration with or without hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 87:190–197

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pozzati E, Acciarri N, Tognetti F, Marliani F, Giangaspero F (1996) Growth, subsequent bleeding and de novo appearance of cerebral angiomas. Neurosurgery 38:662–670

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Proust F, Toussaint P, Garnieri J, Hannequin D, Legars D, Houtieville J, Freger P (2001) Pediatric cerebral aneurysms. J Neurosurg 94:733–739

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Punt J (2004) Surgical management of paediatric stroke. Pediatr Radiol 34:16–23

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Raybaud CA, Strother CM (1986) Persisting abnormal embryonic vessels in intracranial arteriovenous malformations. Acta Radiol Suppl 369:136–138

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rigamonti D, Spetzler RF (1988) The association of venous and cavernous malformations. Report of four cases and discussion of the pathophysiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic implications. Acta Neurochir 92(1–4):100–105

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Riina H, Lemole M, Spetzler R (2006) Surgical treatment of spinal vascular malformations in children. In: Alexander MJ, Spetzler RF (eds) Pediatric neurovascular disease. Thieme Medical, New York, pp 129–134

    Google Scholar 

  • Rivera P, Willinsky R, Porter P (2003) Intracranial cavernous malformations. Neuroimag Clin North Am 13:27–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roach ES, Riela A (eds) (1995) Pediatric cerebrovascular disorders, 2nd edn. New York, Futura

    Google Scholar 

  • Roach ES, Golomb MR, Adams R, Biller J, Daniels S, Deveber G, Smith ER (2008) Management of stroke in infants and children: a scientific statement from a special writing group of the American Heart Association Stroke Council and the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young. Stroke 39(9):2644–2691. doi:10.1161/strokeaha.108.189696

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rodesch G, Hui F, Alvarez H, Tanaka A, Lasjaunias P (1994) Prognosis of antenatally diagnosed vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. Childs Nerv Syst 10:79–83

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rodesch G, Hurth M, Alvarez H, Tadie M, Lasjaunias P (2002) Classification of spinal cord arteriovenous shunts: proposal for a reappraisal – the bicetre experience with 155 consecutive patients treated between 1981 and 1999. Neurosurgery 51:374–380

    Google Scholar 

  • Rodesch G, Hurth M, Alvarez H, Tadie M, Lasjaunias P (2005) Spinal cord intradural arteriovenous fistulae: anatomic, clinical, and therapeutic considerations in a series of 32 consecutive patients seen between 1981 and 2000 with emphasis on endovascular therapy. Neurosurgery 57:973–981

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ruiz DS, Yilmaz H, Gailloud P (2009) Cerebral developmental venous anomalies: current concepts. Ann Neurol 66(3):271–283. doi:10.1002/ana.21754 [Review]

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Saito Y, Kobayashi N (1981) Cerebral venous angiomas: clinical evaluation and possible etiology. Radiology 139(1):87–94

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • San Millan Ruiz D, Gailloud P (2010) Cerebral developmental venous anomalies. Childs Nerv Syst 26(10):1395–1406

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • San Millan Ruiz D, Delavelle J, Yilmaz H, Gailloud P, Piovan E, Bertramello A, Rufenacht DA (2007) Parenchymal abnormalities associated with developmental venous anomalies. Neuroradiology 49(12):987–995. doi:10.1007/s00234-007-0279-0

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sanai N, Auguste KI, Lawton MT (2010) Microsurgical management of pediatric intracranial aneurysms. Childs Nerv Syst 26:1309–1318

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sanai N, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Gupta NM et al (2006) Pediatric intracranial aneurysms: durability of treatment following microsurgical and endovascular management. J Neurosurg 104:82–89

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Santos CC, Sarnat HB, Roach ES (2005) Cerebrovascular disorders. In: Menkes JM, Sarnat HB, Maria BL (eds) Child neurology. Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1–76

    Google Scholar 

  • Santos CC, Sarnat HB, Roach ES (2006) Cerebrovascular disorders. In: Menkes JM, Sarnat HB, Maria BL (eds) Child neurology. Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 843–844

    Google Scholar 

  • Sayama CM, Osborn AG, Chin SS, Couldwell WT (2009) Capillary telangiectasias: clinical, radiographic, and histopathological features. J Neurosurg 113(4):709–714. doi:10.3171/2009.9.jns09282

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schaller B, Graf R (2004) Cerebral venous infarction: the pathophysiological concept. Cerebrovasc Dis 18(3):179–188

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Scott RM, Smith ER (2009) Moyamoya disease and moyamoya syndrome. N Engl J Med 360(12):1226–1237. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0804622 [Review]

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sharma BS, Sinhas S, Mehta VS, Suri A, Gupta A, Manapatra AK (2007) Pediatric intracranial aneurysms: clinical characteristics and outcome of surgical treatment. Childs Nerv Syst 23:327–333

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shim KW, Park EK, Kim JS, Kim DS (2015) Cognitive outcome of pediatric moyamoya disease. J Korean Neurosurg Soc 57(6):440–444. doi:10.3340/jkns.2015.57.6.440

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Singhal A, Adirim T, Cochrane D, Steinbok P (2011) Pediatric patients with poor neurological status and arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage: an outcome analysis. J Neusorsurg Pediatr 7:462–467

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Smith JL (2009) Understanding and treating moyamoya disease in children. Neurosurg Focus 26(4):E4. doi:10.3171/2000.01.FOCUS08306 [Review]

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smith ER (2015) Structural causes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in children: moyamoya and arteriovenous malformations. Curr Opin Pediatr 27:706–711

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smith ER, Scott RM (2005) Surgical management of moyamoya syndrome. Skull Base 15(1):15–26

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Smith ER, Scott RM (2010) Cavernous malformations. Neurosurg Clin N Am 21:483–490

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smith M, Sinson G (2006) Intracranial arteriovenous malformations. http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3469.htm. Retrieved 9 Jan 2006.

  • Smyth M, Sneed P, Ciricillo S et al (1997) Stereotactic radiosurgery for pediatric intracranial arteriovenous malformations: the University of California at San Francisco experience. J Neurosurg 97:48–55

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Soltanolkotabi M, Schoeneman SE, Alden TD, Hurley MC, Ansari SADP, AJ, Tomita T, Shaibani A (2013) Onyx embolization of intracranial arteriovenous malformations in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg 11:431–437

    Google Scholar 

  • Song JK, Niimi Y, Kupersmith MJ, Berenstein A (2007) Postnatal growth and development of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation on serial magnetic resonance imaging in a child with hemangiomatosis. Case report. J Neurosurg 106(5 Suppl):384–387. doi:10.3171/ped.2007.106.5.384

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Soriano SG, Sethna NF, Scott RM (1993) Anesthetic management of children with moyamoya syndrome. Anesth Analg 77(5):1066–1070

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Spetzler RF, Martin NA (2010) A proposed grading system for arteriovenous malformations. J Neurosurg 16(2):476–483

    Google Scholar 

  • Spetzler RF, Detwiler P, Riina H, Porter RW (2002) Modified classification of spinal cord vascular lesions. J Neurosurg Spine 96:145–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Swaiman KF, Ashwal S (1999) Pediatric neurology principles & practice, from http://books.google.com/books?id=BNpsAAAAMAAJ. Accessed on 19 Sept 2011.

  • Takeuchi K, Shimuzu K (1957) Hypoplasia of bilateral internal carotid arteries. Brain Nerve 19:37–43

    Google Scholar 

  • Tang S-C, Jeng J-S, Liu H-M, Yip P-K (2003) Diffuse capillary telangiectasia of the brain manifested as a slowly progressive course. Cerebrovasc Dis 15(1–2):140–142

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • TerBrugge K (1999) Neurointerventional procedures in the pediatric age group. Childs Nerv Syst 15:751–754

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • TerBrugge K (2006) Endovascular treatment of vein of Galen malformations in children. In: Alexander M, Spetzler RF (eds) Pediatric neurovascular disease: surgical, endovascular and medical management. Thieme, New York, pp 176–185

    Google Scholar 

  • Titsworth WL, Scott RM, Smith ER (2016) National analysis of 2454 pediatric moyamoya admissions and the effect of hospital volume on outcomes. Stroke 47(5):1303–1311. doi:10.1161/strokeaha.115.012168

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tortori-Donati P, Fondelli MP, Rossi A, Bava GL (1999) Intracranial contrast-enhancing masses in infants with capillary haemangioma of the head and neck: intracranial capillary haemangioma? Neuroradiology 41(5):369–375

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tung H, Giannotta SL, Chandarasoma P (1990) Recurrent intraparenchymal hemorrhages from angiographically occult vascular malformations. J Neurosurg 73:174–180

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Uchino K, Johnston SC, Becker KJ, Tirschwell DL (2005) Moyamoya disease in Washington State and California. Neurology 65(6):956–958. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000176066.33797.82 [Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural Research Support, U.S. Gov’t, P.H.S.]

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Uyama, A., Kawamura, A., Akiyama, H., Nakamizo, S., Yamamoto, K., Nagashima, T.,... Yoshida, M. (2008). A case of cerebellar capillary hemangioma with multiple cysts. Pediatr Neurosurg, 44(4), 344–349. doi:10.1159/000138375

    Google Scholar 

  • Vananman MJ, Hervey-Jumper SL, Maher CO (2010) Pediatric and inherited neurovascular diseases. Neurosurg Clin N Am 21:427–441

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ventureya E, Vassilyadi M (2001) Arteriovenous malformations. In: McLone D (ed) Pediatric neurosurgery: surgery of the developing nervous system. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1105–1111

    Google Scholar 

  • Viswanathan V, Smith ER, Mulliken JB, Fishman SJ, Kozakewich HP, Burrows PE, Orbach DB (2009) Infantile hemangiomas involving the neuraxis: clinical and imaging findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 30(5):1005–1013. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A1478

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Von der Brelie C, Kuczaty S, von Lehe M (2014) Surgical management and long-term outcome of pediatric patients with different subtypes of epilepsy associated with cerebral cavernous malformations. J Neurosurg Pediatr 13:699–705

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wakai K, Tamakoshi A, Ikezaki K, Fukui M, Kawamura T, Aoki R, Ohno Y (1997) Epidemiological features of moyamoya disease in Japan: findings from a nationwide survey. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 99(Suppl 2):S1–S5 [Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Walcott BP, Smith ER, Scott RM, Orbach DB (2013) Pial arteriovenous fistulae in pediatric patients: associated syndromes and treatment outcome. J Neurointervent Surg 5:10–14. doi:10.1136/neurintsurg-2011-010168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Waxman SG (2003) Clinical neuroanatomy, 25th edn. Lange Medical Books/McGraw Hill, New York, p. 171

    Google Scholar 

  • Weon YC, Yoshida Y, Sachet M, Mahadevan J, Alvarez H, Rodesch G, Lasjuaunias P (2004) Supratentorial cerebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in children: review of 41 cases with 63 non choroidal single-hole AVFs. Springere, Austria Published online 13 Dec 2004

    Google Scholar 

  • Willing SJ, Faye-Petersen O, Aronin P, Faith S (1993) Radiologic-pathologic correlation. Capillary hemangioma of the meninges. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 14(3):529–536

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson CB (1992) Cryptic vascular malformations. Clin Neurosurg 38:49–84

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wolfe TJ, Hussain SI, Lynch JR, Fitasimmons B, Zaidat OO (2009) Pediatric cerebral angiography: analysis of utilization and findings. Pediatr Neurol 40(2):98–101

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yan J, Gopaul R, Wen J, Li XS, Tang JF (2016) The natural progression of VGAMs and the need for urgent medical attention: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurointerv Surg. doi:10.1136/neurintsurg-2015-012212

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang WH, Lu MS, Cheng YK (2011) Pial arteriovenous fistula: a review of literature. Br J Neurosurg 25:580

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yeh D, Crone K (2006) Cavernous malformations in children. In: Alexander M, Spetzler RF (eds) Pediatric neurovascular disease: surgical, endovascular, and medical management. Thieme, New York, pp 65–71

    Google Scholar 

  • Yen CP, Monteith SJ, Nguyen JH, Rainey J, Schlesinger DJ, Sheehan JP (2010) Gamma knife surgery for arteriovenous malformations in children. J Neurosurg Pediatr 6:426–434

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yokoyama K, Asano Y, Murakawa T et al (1991) Familial occurrence of arteriovenous malformations of the brain. J Neurosurg 74:585–589

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yonekawa Y, Kahn N (2003) Moyamoya disease. Adv Neurol 92:113–118

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zaidat O, Alexander M (2006) Endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children. In: Alexander M, Spetzler RF (eds) Pediatric neurovascular disease: surgical, endovascular, and medical management. Thieme, New York, pp 167–175

    Google Scholar 

  • Zerah M, Garcia-Monaco R, Rodesch G, TerBrugge K, Tardieu M, de Victor D, Lasjaunias P (1992) Hydrodynamics in vein of Galen malformations. Childs Nerv Syst 8:111–117

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zheng SP, Ju Y, You C (2012) Giant intracranial capillary hemangioma in a 3-year-old child: case report and literature review. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 114(9):1270–1273. doi:10.1016/j.clineuro.2012.02.052

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zheng W, Wanibuchi M, Onda T, Liu H, Koyanagi I, Fujimori K, Houkin K (2006) A case of moyamoya disease presenting with chorea. Childs Nerv Syst 22(3):274–278. doi:10.1007/s00381-004-1104-2 [Case Reports Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t]

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Theresa M. Gabay RN, MSN, APRN, CNRN .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Appendix 12.1 Neurovascular Websites for Parents

Appendix 12.1 Neurovascular Websites for Parents

www.aboutkidshealth.ca/EN/HOWTHEBODYWORKS/Pages/default.asp (Hospital for Sick Children website – good site for brain anatomy and physiology).

www.ninds.nih.gov (National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke).

www.novanews.org (National Organization of Vascular Anomalies – NOVA).

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing AG

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Gabay, T.M., Ledet, D. (2017). Neurovascular Disease. In: Cartwright, C., Wallace, D. (eds) Nursing Care of the Pediatric Neurosurgery Patient. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49319-0_12

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49319-0_12

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-49318-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-49319-0

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics