Epidemiology of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Chapter

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing gastrointestinal disorders, presenting most commonly in the adolescent to young adult age. Approximately 25% of IBD occur before age 20 years, and 4% occur in younger than 5 years of age. The underlying inflammation in IBD is thought to occur as a result of immune dysregulation in response to “normal” gut flora in a genetically susceptible host with varying levels of immunoreactivity and genetic predispositions emerging as potential critical factors in the pathogenesis of IBD and disease progression. These developments have enabled us to begin to think about individualized therapy selection, restricting aggressive and more potent therapies (e.g., biologics) for the patients who have a high risk profile and limiting the exposure of toxic medications.

Keywords

Inflammatory bowel diseases Immune dysregulation Descriptive epidemiology Epigenetics 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and NutritionCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsEmory University School of Medicine and Children’s Healthcare of AtlantaAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Emory University School of MedicineDivision of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Emory Children’s CenterAtlantaUSA

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