REWAS 2013 pp 332-340 | Cite as

Resource Efficient Metal and Material Recycling

  • Markus A. Reuter
  • Antoinette van Schaik


Metals enable sustainability through their use and their recyclability. However, various factors can affect the Resource Efficiency of Metal Processing and Recycling. Some typical factors that enable Resource Efficiency include and arranged under the drivers of sustainability: Environment (Maximize Resource Efficiency — Energy, Recyclates, Materials, Water, Sludges, Emissions, Land); Economic Feasibility (BAT & Recycling Systems Simulation / Digitalization, Product vis-à-vis Material Centric Recycling); and Social — Licence to Operate (Legislation, consumer, policy, theft, manual labour.). In order to realize this primary production has to be linked systemically with typical actors in the recycling chain such as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), Recyclers & Collection, Physical separation specialists as well as process metallurgical operations that produce high value metals, compounds and products that recycle back to products. This is best done with deep knowledge of multi-physics, technology, product & system design, process control, market, life cycle management, policy, to name a few. The combination of these will be discussed as Design for Sustainability (DfS) and Design for Recycling (DfR) applications.


Design for Recycling Design for Sustainability Resource Efficiency 


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Copyright information

© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus A. Reuter
    • 1
  • Antoinette van Schaik
    • 2
  1. 1.Outotec OyjEspooFinland
  2. 2.MARASThe HagueThe Netherlands

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