REWAS 2013 pp 272-278 | Cite as

Recycling of Exhaust Batteries in Lead-Foam Electrodes

  • Girolamo Costanza
  • Maria Elisa Tata


Lead and lead-alloy foams have been investigated in this research. In particular low-cost techniques for the direct production of lead-based electrodes have been analyzed and discussed in this work. The relevance of the main process parameters (powder compacting pressure, granulometry, base metal composition, sintering temperature and time) have been focused and the effect on foam morphology has been discussed too. In particular “Sintering and Dissolution Process” (SDP) and “Replication Process” (RP) have been employed and suitable modified. Both spherical urea and NaCl have been adopted in the SDP method. In the replication process it has been evidenced that the viscosity of the melt is fundamental. Furthermore the research examines lead recovery and recycling of exhaust batteries into foam-based electrodes. A novel method for the direct conversion of Pb scrap into lead foam is discussed too.


lead-foam electrodes Pb recycling exhaust batteries 


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Copyright information

© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Girolamo Costanza
    • 1
  • Maria Elisa Tata
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Rome Tor VergataRomeItaly

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