3D Analysis of Phase Separation in Ferritic Stainless Steels

  • Joakim Odqvist
  • Jing Zhou
  • Wei Xiong
  • Peter Hedström
  • Mattias Thuvander
  • Malin Selleby
  • John Ågren

Abstract

The embrittlement of ferritic stainless steels during low temperature aging is attributed to the phase separation with Fe and Cr demixing. The small scale of the decomposed structure with only minor compositional fluctuations and short distances between the enriched and depleted regions has been a challenge for quite some time. A wide selection of experimental and modeling tools have been used to quantify these types of structures. These analyses often focus on rather late stages of decomposition where the mechanical properties are already seriously affected. The recent advance in 3D tools like phase-field and atom probe tomography have created a need for good quantitative procedures of evaluating the structure and also to link results from the continuum approach to the individual atom measurements. This work aims at addressing this need.

Keywords

Phase separation Atom Probe Tomography Phase-field modeling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    J. M. Hyde, M. K. Miller, M. G. Hetherington, A. Cerezo, G. D. W. Smith and C. M. Elliott, “Spinodal decomposition in Fe-Cr alloys: experimental study at the atomic level and comparison with computer models — II. Development of domain size and composition amplitude”, Acta Metall. Mater., 43 (1995), 3385–3401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    W. Xiong, K. Asp Grönhagen, J. Ågren, M. Selleby, J. Odqvist and Q. Chen, “Investigation of spinodal decomposition in Fe-Cr alloys: Calphad modeling and phase field simulation”, Solid State Phenom. 172–174 (2011), 1060–1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    W. Xiong, P. Hedström, M. Selleby, J. Odqvist, M. Thuvander and Q. Chen, “An improved thermodynamic modeling of the Fe-Cr system down to zero Kelvin coupled with key experiments”, Calphad, 35 (2011), 355–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    P. Hedström, S. Bagsheikhi, P. Liu and J. Odqvist, “A phase-field and electron microscopy study of phase separation in Fe-Cr”, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 534 (2012), 552–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    M.K. Miller and E.A. Kenik, “Atom Probe Tomography: A technique for nanoscale characterization”, Microsc. Microanal., 10 (2004), 336–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    J.W. Cahn and J. E. Hilliard, “Free energy of a nonuniform system. I. Interfacial energy”, J. Chem. Phys., 28 (1958), 258–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    J. W. Cahn, ”On spinodal decomposition”, Acta Met., 9 (1961), 795–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    C. Pareige, M. Roussel, S. Novy, V. Kuksenko, P. Olsson, C. Domain and P. Pareige, “Kinetic study of phase transformation in a highly concentrated Fe-Cr alloy: Monte Carlo simulation versus experiements”, Acta Mater., 59 (2011), 2404–2411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    M. Kendall, A. Stuart and J. K. Ord: The Advanced Theory of Statistics (4th Ed. Griffin & Box, London, 1983).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    J.-O Andersson and J. Ågren, “Models for numerical treatment of multicomponent diffusion in simple phases”, J. App. Phys., 72 (1992), 1350–1355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    L.Q. Chen and J. Shen, “Applications of semi-implicit Fourier-spectral method to phase field equations”, Comp. Phys. Comm., 108 (1998), 147–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    W. Xiong and J. Ågren, unpublished research, 2012.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    M. Hillert, “A solid-solution model for inhomogeneous systems”, Acta Met., 9 (1961), 525–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joakim Odqvist
    • 1
  • Jing Zhou
    • 1
  • Wei Xiong
    • 1
  • Peter Hedström
    • 1
  • Mattias Thuvander
    • 2
  • Malin Selleby
    • 1
  • John Ågren
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringKTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Department of Applied PhysicsChalmers University of TechnologyGöteborgSweden

Personalised recommendations