Three-Dimensional Characterization of Dislocation-Defect Interactions

  • Josh Kacher
  • Grace Liu
  • I M Robertson
Conference paper


Transmission electron microscopes play a critical role in building our knowledge base of the atomic structure and composition as well as the electronic and magnetic state of materials. This information is a two-dimensional snapshot of the material state and requires a posteriori analysis to reveal the reaction or processing pathway, or to correlate with a macroscopic property. However, using electron tomography it is feasible to recover the information lost in the electron beam direction and obtain a three-dimensional view of the internal structure in an electron transparent foil. In this paper, example applications of diffraction-contrast electron tomography to understand various dislocation-obstacle interactions are presented and discussed.


Dislocations Transmission electron microscopy Electron tomography 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    B.F. McEwen, et al., Principles and Practice in Electron Tomography, in Methods in Cell Biology. 2008, Academic Press. p. 129–168.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P.A. Midgley and R.E. Dunin-Borkowski, “Electron tomography and holography in materials science,” Nat. Mater., 8 (4) (2009), 271–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.S. Barnard, et al., “Three-dimensional analysis of dislocation networks in GaN using weak-beam dark-field electron tomography,” Phil. Mag., 86 (29–31) (2006), 4901–4922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Kacher, G.S. Liu, and I.M. Robertson, “In situ and tomographic observations of defect free channel formation in ion irradiated stainless steels,” Micron (2012), DOI: 10.1016/j.micron.2012.01.017Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.P. Kacher, G.S. Liu, and I.M. Robertson, “Visualization of grain boundary/dislocation interactions using tomographic reconstructions,” Scripta Materialia, 64 (2011), 677–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G.S. Liu and I.M. Robertson, “Three-dimensional visualization of dislocation-precipitate interactions in a Al-4Mg-0.3Sc alloy using weak-beam dark-field electron tomography,” J. Mater. Res., 26 (4) (2011), 514–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Tanaka, et al., “Crack tip dislocations revealed by electron tomography in silicon single crystal,” Scripta Materialia, 59 (8,) (2008), 901–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Tanaka, et al., “Transition from a punched-out dislocation to a slip dislocation revealed by electron tomography,” J. Mater. Res., 25 (2010), 2292–2296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Tanaka, et al., “Sequential multiplication of dislocation sources along a crack front revealed by HVEM-tomography,” J. Mater. Res., 26 (4) (2011), 508–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G.S. Liu, “Time resolved and three-dimensional study of dislocation-particle interactions in aluminum and copper alloys,” Dissertation. 2011, University of Illinois.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T.C. Lee, I.M. Robertson, and H.K. Birnbaum, “In situ transmission electron microscope deformation study of the slip transfer mechanisms in metals,” Metal. Trans. A, 21A (9) (1990), 2437–2447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Briceño, et al., “Effect of ion irradiation-produced defects on the mobility of dislocations in 304 stainless steel,” J. Nucl. Mater., 409 (1) (2011), 18–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josh Kacher
    • 1
  • Grace Liu
    • 1
  • I M Robertson
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations