Nascher IL. Geriatrics. The diseases of the old age and their treatment. Philadelphia: Blackiston’s Son & Co; 1914. Reprint. University of California collections, July 2015.
Hayflick L. Biological aging is no longer an unsolved problem. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1100:1–13.
Rattan SIS. Aging is not a disease: implications for intervention. Aging Dis. 2014;5(3):196–202.
Blackburn E, Szostak J, Greider C. Telomere and telomerase: the path from maize, tetrahymena and yeast to human cancer and aging. Nat Med. 2006;12:1133–8.
Calado RT, Young NS. Telomere disease. NEJM. 2009;361:2353–65.
Lapham K et al. Automated assay of telomere length measurement and informatics for 100,000 subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging ( GERA) Cohort. Genetics. 2015;200:1061–72.
Weindruch R, Walford RL. Dietary restriction in mice beginning at 1 year of age: effect on lifespan and spontaneous cancer incidence. Science. 1982;215:1415–8.
Anderson RM, Shanmuganayagam D, Weindruch R. Calorie restriction and aging: studies in mice and monkeys. Toxicol Pathol. 2009;37(1):47–51.
Mattison JM, Roth GS, Beasley TM, Tilmont EM, Handy AM, Herbert RL, Longo DL, Allison DB, Young JE, Bryant M, Barbard D, Ward WF, Qi W, Ingram D, De Gabo G. Impact of caloric restriction on health and survival in rhesus monkeys from the NIA study. Nature. 2012;489:318–21.
Miller R. Biology of aging and longevity. In: Hazzard’s Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology. Halter JB, Ouslander JG, Tinetti ME, Studenski S, High KP, Asthana S, editors. 6th ed. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2009.
Carnes BA. What is lifespan regulation and why does it exist? Biogerontology. 2011;12(4):367–74.
Adams SD, Cotton B, McGuire M, Dipasupil E, Podbielski J, Zaharia A, Ware D, Gill B, et al. Unique pattern of complications in elderly trauma patients at a level 1 trauma center. J Trauma. 2012;72(1):112–8.
Fleming D, Walter D. Cannon and homeostasis. Soc Res. 1984;51(3):609–40.
Mobbs C. Chapter 2 Molecular and Biologic factors in aging. In: Cassel CK, Rosanne Leipzig R, Cohen HJ, Larson EB, Meier DE, editors. Geriatric medicine: an evidence-based approach. 4th ed. New York: Springer; 2003.
Richmond TS, Kauder D, Strumpf N, Meredith T. Characteristics and outcomes of serious traumatic injury in older adults. JAGS. 2002;50:215–22.
Sattin RW, Mullins RJ. Geriatric trauma: the continuing epidemic. JAGS. 2002;50:394–5.
Gault ML, Willems MET. Aging, functional capacity and eccentric exercise training. Aging Dis. 2013;4(6):351–63.
Poulose N, Raju R. Ageing, injury and organ dysfunction. Aging Dis. 2014;5(2):101–8.
Rowe JW, Kahn RL. Successful aging. Gerontologist. 1997;37(4):433–40.
Monzon DG, Iserson KV, Jaurequi J, Musso C, Piccaluga F, Buttaro M. Total hip arthroplasty for hip fractures: 5-year follow-up of functional outcomes in oldest independent old and very old patients. Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil. 2014;5(1):3–8.
Dangleben D, Salim A, Grossman D, Sandhu R, Pasquale M. Nonagenarians and trauma: an increasingly common combination. JAGS. 2005;53(4):729–31.
Tinetti M, Fried T. The end of the disease era. Am J Med. 2004;116:179–85.
Flacker J. What is a geriatric syndrome? JAGS. 2003;51:574–6.
ACS TQIP® Geriatric Trauma Management Guidelines. https://www.facs.org/~/media/files/quality%20programs/trauma/tqip/geriatric%20guide%20tqip.ashx. Accessed online 10 December 2016.
Rubenstein LZ. An overview of comprehensive geriatric assessment: rationale, history, program models, basic components. In: Rubenstein LZ, Wieland D, Bernabei R, editors. Geriatric assessment technology: the state of the art. New York: Springer; 1995.
Graf CE, Zekry D, Gianelli S, Michel JP, Chevalley T. Efficiency and applicability of comprehensive geriatric assessment in the emergency department. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2010;23(4):244–54.
Ellis G. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older adults admitted to hospital: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMJ. 2011;27:343.
Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, et al.. Frailty in older adults. Evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56:146–156; based on data from Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).
Landi F, Calvani R, Cesari M, Tosato M, Martone AM, Bernabei R, Onder G, Marzetti E. Sarcopenia as the biological substrate of physical frailty. Clin Geriatr Med. 2015;31:367–74. article in press.
Sheetz KH, Waits SA, Terjimanian MN, Sullivan J, Campbell DA, Wang SC, Englesbe MJ. Cost of major surgery in the sarcopenic patient. J Am Coll Surg. 2013;217:813–8.
Joseph B, Pandit V, Rhee P, Aziz H, Sadoun M, Wynne J, Tang A, Kulvatunyou N, OKeefe T, Fain M, Friese R. Predicting hospital discharge disposition in gerirauma patients: is frailty the answer? J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013;76(1):196–200.
Gale CR, Cooper C, Sayer AA. Prevalence of frailty and disability: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Age Ageing. 2015;44(1):162–5.
Kiely DK, Cupples LA, Lipsitz LA. Validation and comparison of 2 frailty indexes: The Mobilize Boston Study. JAGS. 2009;57(9):1532–9. Based on data from Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF).
Rockwood K, Mitnitski A. Frailty defined by deficit accumulation and geriatric medicine defined by frailty. Clin Geriatr Med. 2011;27(1):17–26.
Joseph B, Pandit V, Zangbar B, Kulvatunyou N, Tang A, OKeefe T, Green D, Vercruysse G, Fain M, Friese R, Rhee P. Validating trauma-specific frailty index for geriatric trauma patients: a prospective analysis. J Am Coll Surg. 2014;219(1):10–7.
Rockwood K, Theou O, Mitnitski A. Frailty: what are frailty instruments for? Age Ageing. 2015;44(4):545–7.
Morley JE. Frailty, falls and fractures. JAMA. 2013;14:149–51.
Rockwood K, Song X, MacKnight C, Bergman H, Hogan DB, McFowell I, Mitnitski A. A global clinical measure of fitness and frailty in elderly people. CMAJ. 2005;173(5):489–95.
Robinson TN, Wu DS, Pointer L. Simple frailty score predicts postoperative complications across surgical specialties. Am J Surg. 2013;206:544–50.
Joseph B, Pandit V, Zangbar B, Kulvatunyou N, Hashmi A, Green D, OKeefe T, Tang A, Vercruysse G, Fain M, Friese R, Rhee P. Superiority of frailty over age in predicting outcomes among geriatric trauma. JAMA Surg. 2014;149(8):766–72.
Kojima C. Prevalence of frailty in nursing homes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMDA. 2015;16;940–5; article in press, available online.
Neuman MD, Silber JH, Magaziner JS, Passarella MA, Mehta S, Werner RM. Survival and functional outcomes after hip fracture among nursing home residents. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(8):1273–80.
Chang TT, Schecter WP. Injury in the elderly and end-of-life decisions. Surg Clin North Am. 2007;87:229–45.
Tilden LB, Williams BR, Tucker RO, MacLennan PA, Ritchie CS. Surgeon’s attitudes and practices in the utilization of palliative and supportive care services for patients with a sudden advanced illness. J Palliat Med. 2009;12(11):1037–42.
National Trauma Institute Statistic, source CDC, updated Feb 2014. http://nationaltraumainstitute.org/home/trauma_statistics.html. Accessed online 30 Aug 2015.
Tinetti ME, Speechly M, Ginter S. Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. N Engl J Med. 1988;319:1701–7.
CDC. http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/nursing.html. Accessed 21 Sept 2015.
Nevitt MC, Cummings SR, Hudes ES. Risk factors for injurious falls: a prospective study. J Gerontol. 1991;46(5):M164–70.
Tinetti ME, Kumar C. The patient who falls: its always a trade off. JAMA. 2010;303(3):258–66.
Tinetti ME, Willimas C. The effect of falls and fall injuries on functioning in community dwelling elderly. J Gerontol Med Sci. 1998;53(A #2):MI12–9.
Bell AJ, Talbot-Stern JK, Henessy A. Characteristics and outcomes of older patents presenting to the emergency department after a fall: a retrospective analysis. Med J Aust. 2000;173(4):176–7.
Woolcott JC, Richardson KJ, Wiens MO, Patel B, Marin J, Khan KM, Marla CA. Meta-analysis of the impact of 9 classes of medications on falls in elderly persons. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:1952–60.
Muir SW, Gopaul K, Odasso MMM. The Role of cognitive impairment in fall risk among older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Age Ageing. 2012;41(3):299–308.
Haddon Jr W. The changing approach to the epidemiology, prevention and Amelioration of trauma: the transition to approaches etiologically rather than descriptively based. Am J Public Health. 1968;58:1431–8. re-printed in Injury prevention 1999; 5:231–236.
Sattin RW. Falls among older persons: a public health prospective. Annu Rev Public Health. 1992;13:489–508.
Chang JT, Morton SC, Rubenstein LZ, Mojica WA, Maglione M, Suttorp MJ, Roth EA. Interventions for the prevention of falls in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. BMJ. 2004;328(7441):680.
Gates S, Fisher JD, Cooke MW, Carter YH. Lamb Multifactorial assessment and targeted intervention for preventing falls and injuries among older people in community and emergency care setting: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008;336(7636):130–3.
Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ, Sherrington C, Gates S, Clemson LM, Lamb SE. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(9):CD007146.
Vaeyen E, Coussement J, Leysens G, der Elst E V, Delbaere K, Cambier D, et al. Characteristics and effectiveness of fall prevention programs in the nursing homes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAGS. 2015;63:211–22.
Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Staehelin HB, et al. Fall prevention with active and supplemental Vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMJ. 2009;339:b3692.
Tinetti ME, Baker DI, King M, Gottshalk M, Murphy TE, Acampora D, Carlin BP, Leo-Summers L, Allore HG. Effect of dissemination of evidence in reducing injuries from falls. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(3):252–60.
Murphy TE, Baker DI, Leo-Summers L, Allore HG, Tinetti ME. Association between treatment or usual care region and hospitalization for fall-related traumatic brain injury in the connecticut collaboration for fall prevention. JAGS. 2013;61:1763–7.
Provencher V, Sirois MJ, Ouellet MC, Camdden S, Neveu X, Allain-Boule N, Edmond M. Decline in activities of daily living after a visit to a Canadian Emergency department for minor injuries in independent older adults: are frail older adults with cognitive impairment at greater risk? JAGS. 2015;63:860–8.
Hill AM, Hoffmann T, Beer C, McPhai S, Hill KD, Oliver D, Brauer SG, Haines T. Falls after discharge from the hospital: is there a gap between older Peoples’ knowledge about fall prevention strategies and the research evidence? Gerontologist. 2011;51(5):663–2.
Kaufman DW, Kelly JP, Rosenberg L, Anderson TE, Mitchell AA. Recent patterns of medication use the ambulatory adult population of the United States: the Stone survey. JAMA. 2002;287:337–44.
Hajjar ER, Cafiero AC, Hanlon JT. Polypharmacy in elderly patients. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2007;5:345–51.
Hubbard RE, O’Mahony MS, Woodhouse KW. Medication prescribing in frail old people. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;69:319–26.
Wallace J, Paauw DS. Appropriate prescribing and important drug interactions in older adults. Med Clin North Am. 2015;99:295–310.
Budnitz DS, Lovegrove MC, Shehab N, Richards CL. Emergency hospitalizations for adverse drug events in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:2002–12.
American Geriatrics Society. Updated Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. JAGS. 2015;63(11):2227–46.
Richardson K, Bennett K, Kenny RA. Polypharmacy including falls risk-increasing medications and subsequent falls in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Age Ageing. 2015;44(1):90–6.
Chiu MH, Lee HD, Hwang HF, Wang SC, Lin MR. Medication use and fall-risk assessment for falls in an acute care hospital. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2015;15(7):856–63.
Weiner DK, Hanlon JT, Studenski SA. Effects of central nervous system polypharmacy on falls liability in community-dwelling adult. Gerontology. 1998;44:217–21.
Gatic A. Identification and management of in-hospital drug-induced delirium in older patients. Drugs Aging. 2011;28(9):737–48.
Nickel CH, Ruedinger JM, Messmer AS, Maile PA, Bodmer M, Kressig M, Kraehenbuehl S, Bingisser R. Drug-related emergency department visits by elderly patients presenting with non-specific complaints. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2013;21:15–29.
Sharif S, Dominguez M, Imbriano L, Mattana J. Maesaka JK Recognition of hyponatremia as a risk factor for hip fractures in older adults. JAGS. 2015;63(9):1962–4.
Chow WB, Clifford YK, Rosenthal RA, Esnaola NF. ACS NSQIP ® /AGS Best practice guidelines: optimal preoperative assessment of the geriatric surgical patient. J Am Coll Surg. 2012;214(4):453–66.
O’Mahony D, Sullivan D, Byrne S, O’Connor MN, Ryan C, Gallagher P. STOPP/START criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people: version 2. Age Ageing. 2015;44(2):213–8.
American Geriatrics Society Panel on the Pharmacological Management of Persistent Pain in Older Persons. Pharmacological management of persistent pain in older persons. JAGS. 2009;57:1331–46.
Cerreta F, Eichler HG, Rasi G. Drug policy for an aging population- the European Medicines Agency’s geriatric medicine strategy. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1972–4.
Abbey J, De Bellis A, Piller Nesterman A, Giles L, Parker D, Lowcay B. The Abbey Pain scale: a 1 min numerical indicator for people with end-stage dementia. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2004 Jan;10(1):6–13.
Warden V, Hurley AC, Volicar L. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD)scale. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2003;4(1):9–15.
Malec M, Shega JW. Pain management in the elderly. Med Clin North Am. 2015;99:337–50.
Lynch EP, Lazor MA, Gellis GE, Orav J, Goldman L, Marcantonio ER. The impact of postoperative pain on the development of postoperative delirium. Anesth Anal. 1998;86:781–5.
Montamat SC, Cusack BJ, Vestal RE. Management of drug therapy in the elderly. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:303–9.
Conway BR, Fogarty DG, Nelson WE, Doherty CC. Opioid toxicity in patients with renal failure. BMJ. 2006;332:345.
Bruckenthal P. Pain in the older adult. In: Fillit HM, Rockwood K, Woodhouse K, editors. Brocklehurst’s textbook of geriatric medicine and gerontology. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2010.
Helme RD, Katz B. Control of chronic pain. In: Sinclair AJ, Morley JE, Vellas B, editors. Patty’s principles and practice of Geriatric medicine. 5th ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
Chey WD, Webster L, Sostek M, Lappalainen J, Barker PN, Tack J. Naloxegol for opioid-induced constipation in patients with noncancer pain. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:2387–96.
Shaughnessy M, Rudulph JL. Special issue: advancing delirium science: systems, mechanisms and management. JAGS. 2011;59(s2):S233–S304.
Rudolph JL, Boustani M, Kamholtz B, Shaughnessey M, Shay K. Delirium: a strategic plan to bring an ancient disease into 21 century. JAGS. 2011;59(supp):237–40.
Innoye SK, Charpentier PA. Precipitating factors for delirium in hospitalized elderly persons. Predictive model and interrelationship with baseline vulnerability. JAMA. 1996;275(11):852–7.
Burns A, Gallagley A, Burne J. Delirium. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:362–7.
Siddiqi N, House AO, Holmes JD. Occurrence and outcome of delirium in medical inpatients: a systematic literature review. Age Ageing. 2006;35(4):350–64.
Rudolph JL, Innoye SK, Jones RN, Yan FM, Fong TG, Levkoff SE, Marcantonio ER. Delirium: an independent predictor of functional decline after cardiac surgery. JAGS. 2010;58:643–9.
The American Geriatrics Society Expert Panel on Postoperative Delirium in Older Adults. American Geriatrics Society abstracted clinical practice guidelines for postoperative delirium in older adults. JAGS. 2015;63(1):142–50.
Katz S, Ford AB, Moskowitz RW, Jackson BA, Jaffe MW. Studies of illness in aged: the index of ADL: a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. JAMA. 1963;21:914–9.
Sleiman I, Rozzini R, Barbisoni P, Morandi A, Ricci A, Giordano A, Trabucci A. Functional trajectories during hospitalization: a prognostic sign for elderly patients. J Gerontol Med Sci. 2009;63A(6):659–63.
Kortebein P, Symons TB, Ferrando A, Paddon-Jones D, Ronsen O, Protas E, Conger S, Lombeida J, Wolfe R, Evans W. Functional impact of 10 days of bed rest in healthy older adults. J Gerontol Med Sci. 2008;63(10):1076–81.
Engel H, Needham D, Morris P, Cropper M. Early mobilization from recommendation to implementation at three medical centers. Crit Care Med. 2013;41(9):S69–80.
Capezui EA, Bricoli B, Boltz MP. Nurses Improving the Care of Healthsystem Elders: creating a sustainable business model to improve care of hospitalized older adults. JAGS. 2013;61:1387–93.
Innoye SK, Baker DI, Fugal P, Bradley EH. Disseminating of the hospital elder life program: implementation, adaptation and successes. JAGS. 2006;54(10):1492–9.
Culp KR, Cacchione PZ. Nutritional status and delirium in long-term care elderly individuals. Appl Nurs Res. 2008;21:66–74.
Hanson LC, Ersek M, Gilliam R, Carey TS. Oral feeding options for people with dementia: a systematic review. JAGS. 2011;59:463–72.
Creditor MC. Hazards of hospitalization. Ann Intern Med. 118(3):219–26.
Meddling J, Rogers MM, Krein SL, Fakih MG, Olmsted RN, Saint S. Reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use and other strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: an integrative review. BMJ Qual Saf. 2014;23:277–89.
Biese KJ, Roberts E, LaMantia M, Zamora Z, Shofer FS, Snyder G, Patel A, Hollar D, Kizer JS, Busby-Whitehead J. Effect of geriatric curriculum on Emergency medicine resident attitude, knowledge and decision-making. Acad Emerg Med. 2011;18(10):S92–6.
Ciesla DJ, Pracht EE, 3rd Tepas J, Cha JY, Langland-Orban B, Flint LM. The injured elderly: a rising tide. Surgery. 2013;154(2):291–8.
Fisher AA, Davis MW, Rubenach SE, Sivakumaran S, Smith PN, Budge MM. Outcomes for older patients with hip fracture: the impact of orthopedic and geriatric medicine co-care. J Orthop Trauma. 2006;20(3):172–8.
Vidan M, Serra J, Moreno C, Riquelme G, Ortiz J. Efficacy of a comprehensive geriatric intervention in older patients hospitalized for a hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial. JAGS. 2005;53:1476–82.
Fallon W, Rader E, Zyranski S, Mancuso C, Martin B, Breedlove L, DeGolia P, Allen K, Campbell J. Geriatric outcomes are improved by a geriatric trauma consultation service. J Trauma. 2006;61(5):1040–6.
Lenartowitcz M, Parkovnick M, Mcfarlan A, Haas B, Straus SE, Nathens AB, Wong CL. An evaluation of a proactive geriatric trauma consultation service. Ann Surg. 2012;256(6):1098–101.
Reuben DB. Outcomes of hip fracture: do medical doctors matter? JAGS. 2010;58:2022–3.
Ellis G, Whitehead MA, O’Neill D, Langhorne P, Robinson D. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older adults admitted to hospital (Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(7):CD 006211
Mangram AJ, Mitchell CD, Shifflette VK, Lorenzo M, Truitt MS, Goel A, Lyons MA, Nichols DJ, Dunn E. Geriatric trauma service: a one year experience. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;72:119–22.
Prokop A, Reinauer KM, Chmielnicki M, Is there a sense in having a certified center for geriatric trauma surgery? Z Orthop Unfall. 2015;153(3):306–11, abstract in English, article in German.
Min L, Cryer H, Chan CL, Roth C, Tilou A. Quality of care delivered before and after a quality improvement intervention for acute geriatric trauma. J Am Coll Surg. 2015;220(5):820–30.
Ayres RE, Scheinthal S, Gross C, Bell EC. Changes to osteopathic specialty board certification. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2012;112(4):226–31.
Fried LP, Hall WJ. Leading on behalf of an aging society. JAGS. 2008;56:1791–5.