Towards Monuments’ Holistic Digital Documentation: the Saint Neophytos Enkleistriotis Case Study

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10058)


The expansion of the term “monument” to include the surrounding area of the tangible cultural asset, its natural environment as well as the intangible data relating to its existence and use has gradually resulted the formation of the term “cultural landscapes”. “Monument” has evolved into “monumental place” and a “place with its own soul” and nowadays into a “unity” incorporating the multiple and diversified views which regard the one and single object, the cultural asset. In this paper and through the presented case study of Saint Neophytos Enkleistriotis monument, we attempt to move further on, from the view of the “unity” and the interdiscipilinary approach to the “holistic” view, treating the cultural asset as a “whole”; a “whole” which will have been created from the harmonious merge of all the multifaced entities of which it is comprised.


Holistic documentation 3D model Geometric documentation Orthoimage Structure from motion UAV 



1. ITN-DCH ( project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework program for research, technological development and demonstration under GA n° 608013.

2. INCEPTION ( has received funding from the EU’s H2020 Reflective framework programme for research and innovation under GA n° 665220.

3. Europeana Space ( has received funding from the European Union’s ICT Policy Support Program as part of the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Program, under GA n° 621037.

4. 4DCH ( project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework program for research, technological development and demonstration under GA n° 324523.

5. Lo-Cloud ( is co-funded under the CIP ICT-PSP program under GA n° 325099.

6. ViMM ( has received funding from the EU’s H2020 framework programme for support and coordination actions under GA n° 727107.


  1. 1.
    Ahmad, Y.: The scope and definitions of heritage: from tangible to intangible. Int. J. Herit. Stud. 12, 292–300 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bouchenaki, M.: A major advance towards a holistic approach to heritage conservation: the 2003 Intangible Heritage Convention. Int. J. Intang. Herit. 2, 106–109 (2007)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vecco, M.: A definition of cultural heritage: from the tangible to the intangible. J. Cult. Herit. 11, 321–324 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rodwell, D.: Sustainability and the holistic approach to the conservation of historic cities. J. Archit. Conserv. 9, 58–73 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    INCEPTION Project: D.1.3 - Project Report (2016)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    ITN-DCH Project: D.1.1 - Project Report (2014)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bold, J., Chatenet, M., Cortembos, T., Kovacec Naglic, K.: Guidance on inventory and documentation of the cultural heritage, Strasbourg (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mango, C., Hawkins, E.J.W.: The hermitage of St. Neophytos and its wall paintings. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 20, p. 119 (1966)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tsiknopoullos, I.P.: The Encleistra and Saint Neophytos, Nicosia (1965)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hartley, R., Zisserman, A.: Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2003)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lowe, D.G.: Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints. Int. J. Comput. Vis. 60, 91–110 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bay, H., Tuytelaars, T., Gool, L.: SURF: Speeded Up Robust Features. In: Leonardis, A., Bischof, H., Pinz, A. (eds.) ECCV 2006. LNCS, vol. 3951, pp. 404–417. Springer, Heidelberg (2006). doi: 10.1007/11744023_32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fischler, M.A., Bolles, R.C.: Random sample consensus: a paradigm for model fitting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography. Commun. ACM 24, 381–395 (1981)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Snavely, N., Seitz, S.M., Szeliski, R.: Photo tourism: exploring photo collections in 3D. ACM Trans. Graph. 25, 835–846 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Klopschitz, M., Irschara, A., Reitmayr, G., Schmalstieg, D.: Robust incremental structure from motion. In: Third International Symposium on 3D Data Processing, Visualization and Transmission (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hemayed, E.E.: A survey of camera self-calibration. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance, AVSS 2003, pp. 351–357 (2003)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nilosek, D., Walvoord, D.J., Salvaggio, C.: Assessing geoaccuracy of structure from motion point clouds from long-range image collections. Opt. Eng. 53, 113112 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Remondino, F., Spera, M.G., Nocerino, E., Menna, F., Nex, F., Gonizzi-Barsanti, S.: Dense image matching: comparisons and analyses. In: Arqueologica 2.0, et al. (eds.) Proceedings of the DigitalHeritage 2013 - Federating the 19th International VSMM, 10th Eurographics GCH, and 2nd UNESCO Memory of the World Conferences, Plus Special Sessions from CAA, pp. 47–54 (2013) Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Remondino, F.: From point cloud to surface: the modeling and visualization problem. Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spat. Inf. Sci. XXXIV, 24–28 (2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kakoulli, I., Fischer, C.: The techniques and materials of the wall paintings at the Enkleistra of St. Neophytos (Phase II) (2012)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ott, M., Pozzi, F.: ICT and cultural heritage education: which added value? In: Lytras, M.D., Carroll, J.M., Damiani, E., Tennyson, R.D. (eds.) WSKS 2008. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5288, pp. 131–138. Springer, Heidelberg (2008). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-87781-3_15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ioannides, M., Bokolas, V., Chatzigrigoriou, P., Nikolakopoulou, V., Athanasiou, V.: Education use of 3D models and photogrammetry content; the Europeana space project for Cypriot UNESCO monuments. In: Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Remote Sensing and Geoinformation of Environment, Cyprus, April 2016Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    UNESCO: Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention. WHC.02/2 (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (, which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cyprus University of TechnologyLimassolCyprus
  2. 2.National Technical University of AthensAthensGreece
  3. 3.The Holy, Royal and Stavropegic Monastery of Saint NeophytosPaphosCyprus
  4. 4.7ReasonsAbsdorfAustria

Personalised recommendations