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A Mobile, AR Inside-Out Positional Tracking Algorithm, (MARIOPOT), Suitable for Modern, Affordable Cardboard-Style VR HMDs

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNISA,volume 10058)


Smartphone devices constitute a low-cost, mainstream and easy to use h/w for VR rendering and main component for modern, mobile VR Head-Mounted-Displays (HMDs). They support rotational tracking from on board sensors to manage orientation changes, via their Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), but they lack positional tracking to reflect head translational movements, a key feature that modern, desktop VR HMDs nowadays provide out-of-the-box. Taking advantage of the RGB camera sensor that each modern mobile device is equipped, we describe a novel combination of inside-out AR tracking algorithms based on both marker and markerless tracking systems to provide the missing positional tracking for mobile HMDs. We employed this system as an affordable, low-cost VR visualization h/w and s/w method, for heritage professionals to employ it for VR archeological sites and Cultural Heritage related monuments interactive walk-throughs. We also compared our results with a recent holographic AR headset (Meta AR-glasses) that supports gesture recognition and interaction with the virtual objects via its RGB-D camera sensor and integrated IMU.


  • Mixed reality
  • Positional tracking
  • Monument visualization
  • Mobile VR
  • Marker and markerless tracking

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The research leading to these results has received partial funding from the European Union People Programme (FP7- PEOPLE- 2013-ITN) under grant agreement No. 608013 and from the European Union Horizon2020 Programme (H2020-SC6-CULT-COOP-9 – CSA) under grant agreement No. 727107. Special thanks also to ARdictive ( and its CEO & founder Nils Huebner for the MetaAR glasses.

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Zikas, P., Bachlitzanakis, V., Papaefthymiou, M., Papagiannakis, G. (2016). A Mobile, AR Inside-Out Positional Tracking Algorithm, (MARIOPOT), Suitable for Modern, Affordable Cardboard-Style VR HMDs. In: , et al. Digital Heritage. Progress in Cultural Heritage: Documentation, Preservation, and Protection. EuroMed 2016. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 10058. Springer, Cham.

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