A Mobile, AR Inside-Out Positional Tracking Algorithm, (MARIOPOT), Suitable for Modern, Affordable Cardboard-Style VR HMDs

  • Paul ZikasEmail author
  • Vasileios Bachlitzanakis
  • Margarita Papaefthymiou
  • George Papagiannakis
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10058)


Smartphone devices constitute a low-cost, mainstream and easy to use h/w for VR rendering and main component for modern, mobile VR Head-Mounted-Displays (HMDs). They support rotational tracking from on board sensors to manage orientation changes, via their Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), but they lack positional tracking to reflect head translational movements, a key feature that modern, desktop VR HMDs nowadays provide out-of-the-box. Taking advantage of the RGB camera sensor that each modern mobile device is equipped, we describe a novel combination of inside-out AR tracking algorithms based on both marker and markerless tracking systems to provide the missing positional tracking for mobile HMDs. We employed this system as an affordable, low-cost VR visualization h/w and s/w method, for heritage professionals to employ it for VR archeological sites and Cultural Heritage related monuments interactive walk-throughs. We also compared our results with a recent holographic AR headset (Meta AR-glasses) that supports gesture recognition and interaction with the virtual objects via its RGB-D camera sensor and integrated IMU.


Mixed reality Positional tracking Monument visualization Mobile VR Marker and markerless tracking 



The research leading to these results has received partial funding from the European Union People Programme (FP7- PEOPLE- 2013-ITN) under grant agreement No. 608013 and from the European Union Horizon2020 Programme (H2020-SC6-CULT-COOP-9 – CSA) under grant agreement No. 727107. Special thanks also to ARdictive ( and its CEO & founder Nils Huebner for the MetaAR glasses.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Zikas
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Vasileios Bachlitzanakis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Margarita Papaefthymiou
    • 1
    • 2
  • George Papagiannakis
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Foundation for Research and Technology HellasHeraklionGreece
  2. 2.University of CreteHeraklionGreece

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