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Sepsis pp 25-43 | Cite as

Epidemiology of Sepsis: Current Data and Predictions for the Future

  • Bashar Staitieh
  • Greg S. Martin
Chapter
Part of the Respiratory Medicine book series (RM)

Abstract

Descriptions of sepsis can be found in humanity’s oldest written documents. It has long been recognized as a cause of severe illness and death. In the modern era, advances in the microbiology brought with them the understanding of sepsis as a severe inflammatory response to infection. Consensus conferences have provided definitions of sepsis that emphasize its many potential manifestations and allow us to study its incidence over time and space. Studies of the epidemiology of sepsis demonstrate significant variability in both design and outcome measurements, but several points remain relatively consistent. Severe sepsis and septic shock are both common problems in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide and incidence appears to be increasing. Mortality rates are significant but appear to be improving over time. The disease is quite costly, accounting for major portions of both ICU and overall healthcare expenditure. Sepsis appears to disproportionately affect men, blacks, and patients of lower socioeconomic status in most studies and has been shown to have a genetic component as well. It is strongly associated with malignancy, HIV, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The most common site of infection driving sepsis has been and continues to be the lungs, while the predominant etiologic agent seems to be shifting from gram-negative organisms to gram-positive organisms over time.

Keywords

Critical illness Intensive care unit Sepsis Shock Infection Disparity 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care MedicineEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

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