Advertisement

Towards Support for Strategic Decision Processes Using Enterprise Models: A Critical Reconstruction of Strategy Analysis Tools

  • Alexander BockEmail author
  • Ulrich Frank
  • Arne Bergmann
  • Stefan Strecker
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing book series (LNBIP, volume 267)

Abstract

Strategic decision processes are traditionally thought to affect an organization’s long-term success, motivating the development of strategy analysis tools. But ordinary strategy analysis tools have been criticized on several grounds, such as the neglect of organizational context and ill-defined concepts. This paper explores whether enterprise models can provide a richer foundation for strategic analysis, intending to lay the ground for the development of a modeling language. Specifically, the paper analyzes key concepts of traditional strategy analysis tools, reconstructs these concepts in the form of a meta model, and demonstrates integration potentials with enterprise models. The paper closes with implications and lessons learned for future research.

Keywords

Enterprise modeling Domain-specific modeling languages Strategic decision processes Strategy analysis tools 

References

  1. 1.
    Fayol, H.: General and Industrial Management. Pitman, London (1949)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ansoff, H.I.: Corporate Strategy: An Analytic Approach to Business Policy for Growth and Expansion. McGraw-Hill, New York (1965)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andrews, K.R.: Concept of Corporate Strategy. Richard D Irwin, New York (1987)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mintzberg, H.: Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning. Free Press, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kaplan, R.S., Norton, D.P.: The balanced scorecard - measures that drive performance. Harvard Bus. Rev. 70(1), 71–79 (1992)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Porter, M.E.: The five competitive forces that shape strategy. Harvard Bus. Rev. 1, 23–40 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sandkuhl, K., Stirna, J., Persson, A., Wißotzki, M.: Enterprise Modeling: Tackling Business Challenges with the 4EM Method. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Frank, U.: Multi-perspective enterprise modeling: foundational concepts, prospects and future research challenges. Softw. Syst. Model. 13(3), 941–962 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    The Open Group: ArchiMate 2.0 Specification: Open Group Standard. The Open Group Series. Van Haren, Zaltbommel (2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horkoff, J., Barone, D., Jiang, L., Yu, E.S., Amyot, D., Borgida, A., Mylopoulos, J.: Strategic business modeling: representation and reasoning. Softw. Syst. Model. 13(3), 1015–1041 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chandler, A.D.: Strategy and Structure. MIT Press, Cambridge (1962)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Porter, M.E.: Competitive Advantage. Free Press, New York (1985)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kaplan, R.S., Norton, D.P.: Strategy Maps: Converting Intangible Assets into Tangible Outcomes. Harvard Business School Press, Boston (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hofer, C.W.: Some preliminary research on patterns of strategic behavior. In: Academy of Management Proceedings, pp. 46–54 (1973)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Huff, A.S.: Mapping Strategic Knowledge. Thousand Oaks (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reger, R.K., Huff, A.S.: Strategic groups: a cognitive perspective. Strateg. Manag. J. 14(2), 103–123 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barr, P.S., Stimpert, J.L., Huff, A.S.: Cognitive change, strategic action, and organizational renewal. Strateg. Manag. J. 13(S1), 15–36 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cummings, S.: Strategy: past, present, future. In: The Sage Handbook of New Approaches in Management And Organization, pp. 184–194. SAGE, Los Angeles (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Harrison, E.F.: A process perspective on strategic decision making. Manag. Decis. 34(1), 46–53 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kirkwood, C.W.: Strategic Decision Making: Multiobjective Decision Analysis with Spreadsheets. Wadsworth, Belmont (1997)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Simon, H.A.: Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organization, 3rd edn. Free Press, New York (1976)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mintzberg, H., Raisinghani, D., Théorêt, A.: The structure of unstructured decision processes. Adm. Sci. Q. 21(2), 246–275 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mintzberg, H.: The Structuring of Organizations: A Synthesis of the Research. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1979)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Becker, A.: Rationalität strategischer Entscheidungsprozesse: Ein strukturationstheoretisches Konzept. Deutscher Universitätsverlag, Wiesbaden (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lang, J.R., Dittrich, J.E., White, S.E.: Managerial problem solving models: a review and proposal. Acad. Manag. Rev. 3(4), 854–866 (1978)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dery, D.: Decision-making, problem-solving and organizational learning. Omega 11(4), 321–328 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dean Jr., J.W., Sharfman, M.P.: Does decision process matter? A study of strategic decision-making effectiveness. Acad. Manag. J. 39(2), 368–392 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Camillus, J.C.: Strategy as a wicked problem. Harv. Bus. Rev. 86(5), 98–106 (2008)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Grant, R.M.: Contemporary Strategy Analysis, 9th edn. Wiley, Chichester (2016)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stenfors, S., Tanner, L., Haapalinna, I.: Executive use of strategy tools: building shared understanding through boundary objects. In: Frontiers of E-Business Research 2004 (Proceedings), pp. 635–645 (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Clark, D.N.: Strategic management tool usage: a comparative study. Strateg. Chang. 6(7), 417–427 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gunn, R., Williams, W.: Strategic tools: an empirical investigation into strategy in practice in the UK. Strateg. Chang. 16(5), 201–216 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Learned, E.P., Christensen, R.C., Andrews, K.R., Guth, W.D.: Business Policy - Text and Cases, 1st edn. Richard D. Irwin Inc., New York (1969)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Macharzina, K., Wolf, J.: Unternehmensführung: Das internationale Managementwissen: Konzepte - Methoden - Praxis, 7th edn. Gabler, Wiesbaden (2010)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kaplan, R.S., Norton, D.P.: The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy into Action. Harvard Business Press, Brighton (1996)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kaplan, R.S., Norton, D.P.: Putting the balanced scorecard to work. Harvard Bus. Rev. 5, 134–147 (1993)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Porter, M.E.: The value chain and competitive advantage. In: Barnes, D. (ed.) Understanding Business. Understanding Business Behaviour, pp. 50–66. Routledge, London (2001)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Porter, M.E.: Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. Free Press, New York (1980)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Derkinderen, F.G., Crum, R.L.: Pitfalls in using portfolio techniques? Assessing risk and potential. Long Range Plan. 17(2), 129–136 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Helms, M.M., Nixon, J.: Exploring swot analysis-where are we now? A review of academic research from the last decade. J. Econ. Manag. 3(3), 215–251 (2010)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Norreklit, H.: The balance on the balanced scorecard a critical analysis of some of its assumptions. Manag. Acc. Res. 11(1), 65–88 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bock, A., Kaczmarek, M., Overbeek, S., Heß, M.: A comparative analysis of selected enterprise modeling approaches. In: Frank, U., Loucopoulos, P., Pastor, Ó., Petrounias, I. (eds.) PoEM 2014. LNBIP, vol. 197, pp. 148–163. Springer, Heidelberg (2014). doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-45501-2_11 Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Frank, U.: Multilevel modeling: toward a new paradigm of conceptual modeling and information systems design. Bus. Inf. Syst. Eng. 6(6), 319–337 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bock, A.: The concepts of decision making: an analysis of classical approaches and avenues for the field of enterprise modeling. In: Ralyté, J., et al. (eds.) PoEM 2015. LNBIP, vol. 235, pp. 306–321. Springer, Heidelberg (2015). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-25897-3_20 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Berger, P.L., Luckmann, T.: The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge. Doubleday, Garden City (1966)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bock, A.: How modeling language shapes decisions: problem-theoretical arguments and illustration of an example case. In: Schmidt, R., Guédria, W., Bider, I., Guerreiro, S., Buckley, O. (eds.) BPMDS/EMMSAD 2016. LNBIP, vol. 248, pp. 383–398. Springer, Heidelberg (2016). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-39429-9_24 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Frank, U., Strecker, S.: Beyond ERP Systems: An Outline of Self-Referential Enterprise Systems. ICB Research Report 31, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander Bock
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ulrich Frank
    • 1
  • Arne Bergmann
    • 2
  • Stefan Strecker
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Group Information Systems and Enterprise ModelingUniversity of Duisburg-EssenEssenGermany
  2. 2.Enterprise Modelling Research GroupUniversity of HagenHagenGermany

Personalised recommendations