Advertisement

A Comparative Study of the Evolution of Greenbelts in London and Beijing

  • Mingfei MaEmail author
Chapter
  • 421 Downloads
Part of the GeoJournal Library book series (GEJL, volume 122)

Abstract

Urban greenbelt are considered a key instrument for preventing excessive urban expansion. This paper puts greenbelt configurations in the context of the entire metropolitan area and aims to understand the long-term implications of this type of urban land use control. In particular, we are interested in understanding the economic implications that arise from both the success and failure in implementing greenbelts, through a comparison of London and Beijing. This comparative study is expected to uncover the key differences in the approaches to urban expansion, greenbelt policies, and land use outcomes. We first investigate the ongoing debate regarding greenbelt policies and their role in managing urban expansion. Based on the theoretical framework, we outline the urban expansion history of London (from 1890 to 1940) and Beijing (from 1950 to 2000). A comparison from the perspective of land use-transport interactions follows revealing the differences in greenbelt policy designs which resulted in different policy performances. The analyses suggest that transportation-led development, self-contained new towns, and adaptive greenbelt configurations led to the success of London’s Greenbelt, whilst inadequate transportation links, isolated new towns, and rigid planning caused Beijing’s persistent difficulties. This study aims to contribute to new insights into Beijing’s future greenbelt design.

Keywords

Green Space Urban Expansion Urban Fringe Rail Transit Metro Line 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Bibliography

  1. Abercrombie, P., 1945. Greater London Plan 1944, London: HMSO, lONDON.Google Scholar
  2. Amati, M. & Yokohari, M., 2006. Temporal changes and local variations in the functions of London’s green belt. Landscape and Urban Planning, 75(1–2), pp. 125–142.Google Scholar
  3. Anas, A., Arnott, R. & Small, K.A., 1998. Urban Spatial Structure. Journal of economic literature, 36(3), pp. 1426–1464.Google Scholar
  4. Anas, A. & Pines, D., 2008. Anti-sprawl policies in a system of congested cities. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 38(5), pp. 408–423.Google Scholar
  5. Brueckner, J.K., 2001. Urban Sprawl: Lessons from Urban Economics. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs, 2001(1), pp. 65–97.Google Scholar
  6. Buxton, M. & Goodman, R., 2003. Protecting Melbourne’s Green Belt. Urban Policy and Research, 21(2), pp. 205–209.Google Scholar
  7. Campaign to Protect Rural England, 2010. Green Belts: a greener future part 2 green belts in England.Google Scholar
  8. Department for Communicities and Local Government, 1995. Planning Policy Guidance 2 : Green belts.Google Scholar
  9. Van Eeten, M. & Roe, E., 2000. When Fiction Conveys Truth and Authority. Journal of the American Planning Association, 66(1), pp. 58–67.Google Scholar
  10. Elson, M., 1986. Green Belts-Conflict mediation in the urban fringe, Heinemann London.Google Scholar
  11. Freestone, R., 2002. Greenbelts in city and regional planning. In K. c. Parsons & D. Schuyler, eds. From garden city to green city: the legacy of Ebenezer Howard. pp. 67–98.Google Scholar
  12. Garside, P., 1984. West end, east end:London 1890–1940. In A. Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. Alexandrine Press, Oxford, pp. 221–258.Google Scholar
  13. Greater London Authority, 2008. The London Plan Spatial Development Strategy for Greater London-Consolidated with Alterations since 2004.Google Scholar
  14. Greater London Regional Planning Committee, 1933. Second Report, London.Google Scholar
  15. Hall, P., 2002. Cities of Tomorrow 3rd ed., Blackwell.Google Scholar
  16. Hall, P., 1973. England circa 1900. In H. C. Darby, ed. A New Historical Geography of England. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Hall, P., 1974. the green belt: its past and future justification. In Occasional papers in estate management No.5:The future of the green belt. Reading: College of Estate Management, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  18. Hall, P., 1963. London 2000, Faber and Faber Limited.Google Scholar
  19. Hall, P., 1984. Postscript: Metropolis 1890–1940. In A. Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. Alexandrine Press, Oxford, pp. 431–446.Google Scholar
  20. Hall, P., 1964. The development of communications. In J. Coppock & H. Prince, eds. Greater London. Faber and Faber Limited, pp. 52–79.Google Scholar
  21. Howard, E., 1902. Garden Cities of To-Morrow, SWAN SONNENSCHEIN & CO., Ltd.Google Scholar
  22. Jackson, A., 1973. Semi-Detached London: Suburban Development, Life and Transport, 1900–39, Didcot: Wild Swan.Google Scholar
  23. Jun, M.-J., 2011. The effects of Seoul’s greenbelt on the spatial distribution of population and employment, and on the real estate market. The Annals of Regional Science, 49(3), pp. 619–642.Google Scholar
  24. Knowles, R.D., 2012. Transit Oriented Development in Copenhagen, Denmark: From the Finger Plan to Ørestad. Journal of Transport Geography, 22, pp. 251–261.Google Scholar
  25. Kühn, M., 2003. Greenbelt and Green Heart: Separating and integrating landscapes in European city regions. Landscape and Urban Planning, 64(1–2), pp. 19–27.Google Scholar
  26. Long, Y., Gu, Y. & Han, H., 2012. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of urban planning implementation effectiveness: Evidence from five urban master plans of Beijing. Landscape and Urban Planning, 108(2–4), pp. 103–111.Google Scholar
  27. Mieszkowski, P. & Mills, E.S., 1993. The Causes of Metropolitan Suburbanization. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(3), pp. 135–147.Google Scholar
  28. Ministry of Housing and Local Government, 1955. Green belts. Circular 42/55,Google Scholar
  29. Munton, R., 1983. London’s green belt: containment in practice, George Allen & Unwin Ltd.Google Scholar
  30. Natural England & Campaign to Protect Rural England, 2010. Green Belts : a greener future.Google Scholar
  31. Perino, G. et al., 2014. The Value of Urban Green Space in Britain: A Methodological Framework for Spatially Referenced Benefit Transfer. Environmental and Resource Economics, 57(2), pp. 251–272.Google Scholar
  32. Porter, R., 1998. London: A Social History, Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Rydin, Y. & Myerson, G., 1989. Explaining and interpreting ideological effects: a rhetorical approach to green belts. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 7(4), pp. 463–479.Google Scholar
  34. Stanilov, K. & Jin, Y., 2013. The co-evolution of adaptive transport infrastructure: Modelling rail and road network growth in Greater London. In Applied Urban Models conference, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  35. Tang, B.S., Wong, S.W. & Lee, A.K.W., 2007. Green belt in a compact city: A zone for conservation or transition? Landscape and Urban Planning, 79(3–4), pp. 358–373.Google Scholar
  36. Thomas, D., 1970. London’s Greenbelt, Faber and Faber Limited.Google Scholar
  37. Warren-Evans, J.R., 1974. The Growth of Urban areas. In Occasional papers in estate management No.5: The future of the green belt. Reading: College of Estate Management, pp. 19–24.Google Scholar
  38. Wheaton, W.C., 1974. A comparative static analysis of urban spatial structure. Journal of Economic Theory, 9, pp. 223–237.Google Scholar
  39. Wheaton, W.C., 1982. Urban residential growth under perfect foresight. Journal of Urban Economics, 12(1), pp. 1–21.Google Scholar
  40. Wu, W., 2010. The progress of Beijing region study 2009–2010.Google Scholar
  41. Yang, J. et al., 2011. Transport Impacts of Clustered Development in Beijing: Compact Development versus Overconcentration. Urban Studies, 49(6), pp. 1315–1331.Google Scholar
  42. Zhang, Y., Zheng, S. & Sun, C., 2014. What’s the effect of urban villages on commercial housing price? An Analysis Based on Second-Hand Housing Transactions in Beijing. In proceedings of the 17th international symposium on advancement of construction management and real estate.Google Scholar
  43. 艾伟, 庄大方, 刘友兆, 2008. 北京市城市用地百年变迁分析.地球信息科学, 10(4).Google Scholar
  44. 北京交通发展研究中心, 2013. 2013北京市交通发展年度报告.Google Scholar
  45. 北京市城市规划设计研究院, 2007. 北京市绿地系统规划 规划文本 图 集.Google Scholar
  46. 北京市人民政府, 1994. [1994]7号北京市人民政府批转首都 规划委办公室关于实施市区规划绿化 隔离地区绿化请示的通知.Google Scholar
  47. 北京市人民政府, 2003. [2003]7号北京市人民政府关于北京市第二道绿化隔离地区规划的批复, China.Google Scholar
  48. 北京市统计局,国家统计局北京调查总队, 2009.北京60年 1949–2009, 中国统计出版社.Google Scholar
  49. 北京市统计局,国家统计局北京调查总队, 2014. 北京市2013年国民经济和社会发展统计公报.Google Scholar
  50. 北京市统计局, 2015. 北京市情城市建设. Available at: http://www.bjstats.gov.cn/bjsq/csjs/.
  51. 陈刚, 2010. 用公租房解决北漂族住房. xinhua.net.Google Scholar
  52. 甘霖, 2012. 基于遥感影像的北京绿隔规划控制成效分析. 北京规划建设, (5), pp. 37–40.Google Scholar
  53. 韩昊英,龙瀛, 2010. 绿色还是绿地——北京市第一道绿化隔离带实施成效研究. 北京规划建设, 3, pp. 59–63.Google Scholar
  54. 国务院, 1994. 汽车工业产业政策,Google Scholar
  55. 赖德胜,孟大虎,李长安,王琦, 2014. 2014中国劳动力市场发展报告,Google Scholar
  56. 张璐, 2014. 375家污染企业关停退出. 北京晨报, p.A09. Available at: http://bjcb.morningpost.com.cn/html/2014-10/30/content_317552.htm

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ArchitectureUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations