Following Natural Features—Planning Method Research on the Spatial Arrangement of Blue-Green Webs Around Urban Core Areas

  • Zhong XingEmail author
  • Xizi Tang
  • Qiao Yu
  • Xiaobo Xu
Part of the GeoJournal Library book series (GEJL, volume 122)


The paper focuses on the planning method to create blue-green spatial patterns around urban core areas: following natural features of catchment areas and incorporating functionality with urban land-use in the vicinity and bringing together smart solutions to celebrate diverse productive outcomes of natural features while addressing especially water-associated issues induced by urban expansion. The method could be instructive for efficiently conserving and managing natural blue-green spaces within central urban authority areas that is required as one of the main tasks for “improving construction ability” enabling New Urbanization. Following ecological principles, planned and existing blue-green spaces are expected as integrated components of the workings of natural systems rather than isolated elements subjectively manipulated by planners, as in ordinary planning methods. As a result, the planned blue-green web is of composite functions with low maintenance requirements. Detailed measures will enrich the planning drafting tools in rational and operational ways. Survey, literature research, and qualitative research methods are employed in combination with a practical case study. Firstly, land-use cover, inclusive of both buildable and non-developable land, is clearly delineated based on GIS data and the urban general plan. Secondly, the land-use pattern, size, and environmental consequences are correlated and corrected to some extent through the monitoring of data analyses of local air quality and surface water quality. Thirdly, likely eco-functions of natural features are determined after study of natural catchment processes and literature research. Finally, suggested land-use layout of buildable land is incorporated into the whole system with the least possible impact to the environment. Likely storm-water issues and potential induced by urban expansion are addressed in a quantitative way. The planning method will be described in conjunction with case studies for achieving the goals of leaving natural mountain ranges and blue-green features for all citizens, as described in the New Urbanization task. Demonstration of the natural catchment-basin process, contributions of natural factors, and the enrichment of planning tools deserve further research for better application of the method.


Blue-green network Natural feature Catchment area Natural process Planning method 


  1. McBride J R. An Illustrated Outline of Ecological Analysis, LAEP 110[R]. Berkeley, C A: Department of landscape architecture, University of California, 2009.Google Scholar
  2. Aldo Leopold. A Sand County Almanac [M]. New York: Ballantine Books, 1949.Google Scholar
  3. WANG Qiheng, ZHANG Hui. Document Classic and Chou Li: Classic of City Planning and Fengshui Theory in Ancient China[J]. Journal of Tianjin University(Social Sciences), 2010(03):225-231.Google Scholar
  4. CHANG Hsiaotung,CHIEN Hsuehtao,TSAO Yungsheng. Apply Planning Protocols of Chinese Environmental FengShui to ShanShui City[J].. Urban Studies, 2011(01):18-24. Google Scholar
  5. Yu Kongjian.Searching for Site Property : A Few Channels of Landscape Design and Their Comparative Study[J]. Architectural Journal, 2000(02):45-48,67.Google Scholar
  6. Wang Qin. Study on the Construction of Urban Green System Pattern Based on the “Fengshui Pattern” conception--Case study of Wan Zhou City[D]. Chong Qing: Southwest University, 2009.Google Scholar
  7. Forman Richard T T, Michel Godron. landscape Ecology[M]. New York: John Wiley & Sons,1986.Google Scholar
  8. Farina Almo. Landscape ecology in action[M]. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.Google Scholar
  9. Rob H G, Jongman, Gloria Pungetti. Ecological Networks and Greenways—Concept, Design, Implementation[M]. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 2004.Google Scholar
  10. Forman Richard T T. Urban Regions—Ecological and Planning Beyond the City[M]. New York: Cambridge University Press,2008.Google Scholar
  11. Hough Michael. Out of place: Restoring Identity to the Regional Landscape[M]. New Haven: Yale University Press,1990.Google Scholar
  12. Stephen M Wheeler. Planning for sustainability-creating livable, equitable, and ecological communities[M]. New York: Routledge,2004.Google Scholar
  13. Van der Ryn, Sim, Peter Calthorpe. Sustainable Community[M]. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1984.Google Scholar
  14. Van der Ryn, Sim, Stuart Cowan. Ecology Design[M]. Washington D C: Island Press,1996.Google Scholar
  15. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Projecting Land-Use Change——A Summary of Models for Assessing the Effects of Community Growth and Change on Land-Use Patterns[R]. Washington D C: Office of Research and Development,2000.Google Scholar
  16. Downs P W, K S Skinner, G M Kondolf. Rivers and streams[M]. //M R Perrow, A J Davys. Handbook of ecological restoration: principles of restoration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001:267-291.Google Scholar
  17. Bernhardt, E S, M A Palmer, et al. Synthesizing U S river restoration efforts[J]. Science, 2005(308):636-637.Google Scholar
  18. Goldi C. Resuscitation programme for flowing waters in the Canton of Zurich[J]. Anthos, 1989(2):1-5.Google Scholar
  19. Iversen, T M, B Kronvang, B L Madsen, et al. Re-establishment of Danish streams: restoration and maintenance measures[J]. Aquatic Conservations: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, (1993)3:73-92.Google Scholar
  20. Kondolf G M, M W Smeltzer, S Railsback. Design and performance of a channel reconstruction project in a coastal California gravel-bed stream[J]. Environmental Management, 2001, 28(6):761-776.Google Scholar
  21. K Smith, S M, K L Prestegaard. Hydraulic performance of a morphology-based stream channel design[J/OL]. Water Resources Research, 2005(41).
  22. McBrid J R. Evaluation of vegetation in environmental planning[J]. Landscape Planning, 1977 (4): 291-312.Google Scholar
  23. Welsch D J. Riparian forest buffers - function and design for protection and enhancement of water resources[R]. Radnor, P A: USDA Forest Service Northeastern Area State & Private Forestry, 1991.Google Scholar
  24. Rietveld, W J. Agro-forestry and Sustainable Systems: Symposium Proceedings[M]. //Schultz, R C, T M Isenhart, J P Colletti. Riparian buffer systems in crop and rangelands. USDA Forest Service Publication, 1995:13-26.Google Scholar
  25. Marsh W M. Landscape Planning: Environmental Applications. Wiley Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  26. McHarg Ian L. Design with nature[M]. New York: The Natural History Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  27. Owens, Susan, Richard Cowel. Land and Limits: Interpreting Sustainability in the Planning process[M]. London: Routledge, 2002.Google Scholar
  28. Schueler T. Site Planning for Urban Stream Protection. Ellicott City, Prepared for: Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. Washington, DC. Center for Watershed Protection (CWP), 1995.Google Scholar
  29. Spirn, Ann Whiston. the Granite Garden: Urban Nature and Human Design[M]. New York: Basic books, 1984.Google Scholar
  30. LI Jia, SHAO Quanqin, LIU Jiyuan. Forest Conservation Estimation Based on the Integrated Storage Capacity Method--A Case Study of Xingguo County in Jiangxi[J]. Journal of Northwest Forestry University, 2012(4):83-87.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Planning Department, The Faculty of Architecture and Urban PlanningChongqing UniversityShapingba District, ChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.The Faculty of Architecture and Urban PlanningChongqing UniversityShapingba District, ChongqingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations