Biorefineries pp 227-281 | Cite as

Biorefineries in the World

  • Francisco GírioEmail author
  • Susana Marques
  • Filomena Pinto
  • Ana Cristina Oliveira
  • Paula Costa
  • Alberto Reis
  • Patrícia Moura
Part of the Lecture Notes in Energy book series (LNEN, volume 57)


This chapter intends to give a brief overview of current conventional and advanced biomass-based biorefineries in the World. While the conventional biorefineries use mature and commercial technology , the advanced biorefineries (e.g., lignocellulosic-based biofuel biorefineries , microalgae-based biorefineries ) have different degrees of technology-readiness level and regardless the process technology, only a few of them have reached the commercial scale although the profitability remains a quest. The most representative’s examples of biorefineries in the World are reviewed in this chapter with special emphasis on thermochemical - and biochemical -based biomass processing technologies for advanced biofuel biorefineries at pilot, demo or commercial stage. Few examples of product (non-energetic)-driven biorefineries are also discussed, such as pulp and paper biorefineries and lactic acid-producing biorefineries, mainly because only a limited number are in operation because their key technologies are still in the R&D, pilot or demo stage.


Cellulosic Ethanol Plant Plant Technology Readiness Level Gray Harbor Gasification Gasification 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francisco Gírio
    • 1
    Email author
  • Susana Marques
    • 1
  • Filomena Pinto
    • 1
  • Ana Cristina Oliveira
    • 1
  • Paula Costa
    • 1
  • Alberto Reis
    • 1
  • Patrícia Moura
    • 1
  1. 1.LNEGLisboaPortugal

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