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Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: An Emerging Tool for Sustainable Crop Production Under Salt Stress

  • Shiv Ram Singh
  • Deeksha Joshi
  • Nidhi Tripathi
  • Pushpa SinghEmail author
  • Tapendra Kumar Srivastava
Chapter

Abstract

Salinization, recognized as one of the most devastating soil degradation threats on earth, has endangered the potential use of soil on almost an estimated land area of about 1 billion ha globally, representing about 7 % of earths continental extent of which about 20 % is cultivated land area. It is not only suppressing plant growth but is also disturbing the sustainability of beneficial microorganisms associated with the plant rhizosphere. The agricultural crops under salinity are known to exhibit a spectrum of responses ranging from crop yield declines to disturbance in ecological balance of the region. It is a major cause of land abandonment and aquifers for agricultural purposes. The impacts include poor agricultural productivity, low economic returns and soil erosions. PGPRs, which live in association with plant roots that alleviate salt stress for better growth and yield, through their own mechanisms for osmotolerance, osmolyte accumulation, asymbiotic N2 fixation, solubilization of mineral phosphate and other essential nutrients, enhanced NPK uptakes, production of plant hormones, ACC production, scavenging ROS, ISR and IST, are an important alternative to traditional agricultural techniques. The present chapter focuses on the advantages of PGPR-based mechanics through an engineered increase in tolerance to salinity and conceptual understanding of crop productivity as a complex product of plant genetics and microbial community function. The direct and indirect mechanics of PGPR through bio-fertilization, stimulation of root growth, rhizo-remediation and plant antibiosis and induction of systemic resistance, nutrient competition and niches that assists to sustain healthy growth of plants enhancing the crop productivity are also accentuated.

Keywords

Salt stress Crop yield decline Plant growth-promoting bacteria Sustainable crop production 

Notes

Acknowledgement

We express our gratitude to Ms Nidhi Tripathi, SRF, ICAR-IISR, Lucknow, currently placed at Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea, for providing prompt access to the latest publications as and when required, during the chapter writing. The assistance provided by the staff at Organic Chemistry Lab, ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow, during the process is duly acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shiv Ram Singh
    • 1
  • Deeksha Joshi
    • 1
  • Nidhi Tripathi
    • 2
  • Pushpa Singh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tapendra Kumar Srivastava
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane ResearchLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Division of Plant Physiology and BiochemistryICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane ResearchLucknowIndia

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