Developments in Manganese Ferroalloy Research and Production in the Last 25 Years

  • Merete Tangstad
  • Ragnar Tronstad


Ferromanganese production in electrical furnaces is quite an old process. However, as the furnaces are getting bigger, the requirements of cost, yield, product quality, emissions and security are raised. With the increased expectations, the fundamental knowledge must follow. Within the last 25 years there has been a great effort both in the industry as well as the academic environment to push the limits of this process. This article will show some examples of improvements within fundamental data, reaction mechanisms and emissions over this time period.


manganese ferroalloys thermodynamics emissions 


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Copyright information

© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Merete Tangstad
    • 1
  • Ragnar Tronstad
    • 2
  1. 1.Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Elkem AS, TechnologyKristiansandNorway

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