Process Metallurgy an Enabler of Resource Efficiency: Linking Product Design to Metallurgy in Product Centric Recycling
In this paper the link between process metallurgy, classical minerals processing, product centric recycling and urban/landfill mining is discussed. The depth that has to be achieved in urban mining and recycling must glean from the wealth of theoretical knowledge and insight that have been developed in the past in minerals and metallurgical processing. This background learns that recycling demands a product centric approach, which considers simultaneously the multi-material interactions in man-made complex ‘minerals’. Fast innovation in recycling and urban mining can be achieved by further evolving from this well developed basis, evolving the techniques and tools that have been developed over the years. This basis has already been used for many years to design, operate and control industrial plants for metal production. This has been the basis for Design for Recycling rules for End-of-Life products. Using, among others, the UNEP Metal Recycling report as a basis (authors are respectively Lead and Main authors of report), it is demonstrated that a common theoretical basis as developed in metallurgy and minerals processing can help much to level the playing field between primary processing, secondary processing, recycling, and urban/landfill mining and product design hence enhancing resource efficiency. Thus various scales of detail link product design with metallurgical process design and its fundamentals.
KeywordsDesign for Recycling Design for Sustainability Resource Efficiency
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.J.R.G Andrews and T.S. Mika, 1976. Comminution of heterogeneous material. Development of a model for liberation phenomena, In: Proceedings 11th International Mineral Processing Congress, 59–88.Google Scholar
- 3.K. Heiskanen, 1993. Particle Classification, Chapman & Hall, London, Great Britain. ISBN 0 412 49300 4.Google Scholar
- 6.R.P. King, 2001. Modeling and Simulation of Mineral Processing Systems, Butterworth-Heinemann Publications, Oxford, Great Britain. ISBN 0750648848.Google Scholar
- 14.N.A.C. Cressie, 1993. Statistics for Spatial Data, Revised Edition, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
- 15.HSC and HSC Sim 7.1, 1974–2012. Thermochemical and process simulation, Outotec Research Center, www.outotec.com.
- 16.PE: GaBi 6, 1992–2013. Software and System Databases for Life Cycle Engineering, Stuttgart-Echterdingen, www.pe-international.com.
- 17.FACT Sage 6.4, 1976–2013. CRCT-ThermFact Inc. & GTT-Technologies, www.factsage.com.
- 21.A. Richard, A. van Schaik and M.A. Reuter, 2005. “A comparison of the modelling and liberation in minerals processing and shredding of passenger vehicles”, In: EPD Congress 2005 (Edited by M.E. Schlesinger TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society)), 1039–1052.Google Scholar
- 22.B. Castro, H. Remmerswaal, H. Brezet A. van Schaik and M.A. Reuter, 2005. A simulation model of the comminution-liberation of recycling streams: Relationship between product design and the liberation of materials during recycling, International Journal of Minerals Processing, 75(3–4), 255–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.M.A. Reuter, K. Heiskanen, U. Boin, A. van Schaik, E. Verhoef and Y. Yang, 2005. The Metrics of Material and Metal Ecology, Harmonizing the resource, technology and environmental cycles, Elsevier BV, Amsterdam, 706p. (2005) (ISBN: 13 978-0-444-51137-9).Google Scholar
- 26.UNEP Metal Recycling: Opportunities, Limits, Infrastructure, 2013. United Nations Environmental Programme UNEP (Lead author M.A. Reuter with principal contributors: C. Hudson, A. van Schaik, K. Heiskanen, C. Meskers, C. Hagelüken,) 316p., http://www.unep.Org /resourcepanel/PublicationsMetalRecycling/tabid/106143/Default.aspx.