Process Metallurgy an Enabler of Resource Efficiency: Linking Product Design to Metallurgy in Product Centric Recycling

  • Markus Reuter
  • Antoinette van Schaik
Conference paper


In this paper the link between process metallurgy, classical minerals processing, product centric recycling and urban/landfill mining is discussed. The depth that has to be achieved in urban mining and recycling must glean from the wealth of theoretical knowledge and insight that have been developed in the past in minerals and metallurgical processing. This background learns that recycling demands a product centric approach, which considers simultaneously the multi-material interactions in man-made complex ‘minerals’. Fast innovation in recycling and urban mining can be achieved by further evolving from this well developed basis, evolving the techniques and tools that have been developed over the years. This basis has already been used for many years to design, operate and control industrial plants for metal production. This has been the basis for Design for Recycling rules for End-of-Life products. Using, among others, the UNEP Metal Recycling report as a basis (authors are respectively Lead and Main authors of report), it is demonstrated that a common theoretical basis as developed in metallurgy and minerals processing can help much to level the playing field between primary processing, secondary processing, recycling, and urban/landfill mining and product design hence enhancing resource efficiency. Thus various scales of detail link product design with metallurgical process design and its fundamentals.


Design for Recycling Design for Sustainability Resource Efficiency 


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Copyright information

© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Reuter
    • 1
  • Antoinette van Schaik
    • 2
  1. 1.Outotec OyjEspooFinland
  2. 2.MARASThe HagueThe Netherlands

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