Thermodynamic Optimization of Mn-Si-C System
The critical evaluation and thermodynamic optimization of Mn-Si-C and its sub-binary systems have been carried out over the whole composition range from room temperature to above the liquidus temperature. The solution properties of the liquid systems have not been clearly described because the liquid solution exhibits a high degree of short-range-ordering. In order to predict the thermodynamics of the liquid solution, the liquid phases were optimized by the modified quasichemical model. The model parameters of the solid phases were also optimized by the compound energy formalism to best reproduce the phase diagram and important thermodynamic properties in Mn-Si-C system. Using the model parameters, various thermodynamic calculations were carried out. The present database will be a part of larger thermodynamic database for the ferromanganese alloy database.
KeywordsMn-Si-C Thermodynamic database Modified Quasichemical model Phase diagram
B.D. You, B.W. Lee and J.J. Pak, “Manganese loss during the oxygen refining of high-carbon ferromanganese melts”, Metals and Materials
, 5 (1999), 497–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
W. Huang, “Thermodynamic assessment of the Mn-C system”, Scand. J. Metall.
, 19 (1990) 26–32.Google Scholar
D. Djurovic et al., “Thermodynamic assessment of the Mn-C system”, Calphad
, 34 (2010) 279–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
P.Y. Chevalier, E. Fisher and A. Rivet, “A Thermodynamic evaluation of the Mn-Si system”, Calphad
, 19 (1995) 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
J. Gröbner, H.L. Lukas and F. Aldinger, “Thermodynamic calculation of the ternary Al-Si-C”, Calphad
, 20 (1996) 247–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
A.D. Pelton et al., “The modified quasichemical model I — Binary solutions”, Metall. Mater. Trans. B
, 31B (2000) 651–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
A. Shukla, Y.B. Kang and A.D. Pelton, “Thermodynamic assessment of the Si-Zn, Mn-Si, Mg-Si-Zn and Mg-Mn-Si systems”, Calphad
, 32 (2008) 470–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
A.D. Pelton and P. Chartrand, “The modified quasichemical model: Part II — Multicomponent solutions”, Metall. Mater. Trans. A
, 32A (2001) 1355–1360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
A.D. Pelton, “A general geometric thermodynamic model for multicomponent solutions”, Calphad
, 25 (2001) 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
M. Hillert, “The Compound Energy Formalism”, J. Alloys Comp.
, 320 (2001) 161–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
U.M. Hillert and M. Jarl, “A model for alloying effects in ferromagnetic metals”, Calphad
, 2 (1978) 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
A. Katsnelson, F. Tsukihashi and N. Sano, “Determination of manganese and carbon activities of Mn-C melts at 1628K”, ISIJ Int.
, 33 (1993) 1045–1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
J. Fenstad, Ph.D. Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway (2000).Google Scholar
E.J. Kim, B.D. You and J.J. Pak, “Thermodynamics of carbon in liquid manganese and ferromanganese alloys”, Metall. Mater. Trans. B
, 34B (2003) 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
V.T. Witusiewicz, A.K. Biletski and V.S. Shumikin, “Thermodynamic properties of liquid Mn-C alloys”, Metally
, 6 (1988) 26.Google Scholar
A.T. Dinsdale, Calphad
, “SGTE data for pure elements”, 15 (1991) 317–425.Google Scholar
S.V. Meschel and O.J. Kleppa, “Standard enthalpies of formation of some 3d transition metal carbides by high temperature reaction calorimetry”, J. Alloys Comp.
, 257 (1997) 227–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
A.I. Zaitsev et al., “Thermodynamic studies of manganese carbides”, Dokl. Phys. Chem.
, 395 (2004) 632–636.Google Scholar
W.M. Dawson and F.R. Sale, “Enthalpy of formation of manganese carbides, Mn23
”, Metall. Mater. Trans. A
, 11A (1980) 1849–1852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
R. Benz, J.F. Elliott and J. Chipman, “Solid phases of the Mn-C system”, Metall. Trans.
, 4 (1973) 1449–1452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
M.K. Paek et al., “Thermodynamic interactions among carbon, silicon and iron in carbon saturated manganese melts”, Korean J. Met. Mater.
, 50 (2012) 45–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
K. Tang, V. Olso and S.E. Olsen, “Manganese and silicon activities in liquid carbon-saturated Mn-Si-C alloys”, Steel Research
, 73 (2002) 77–81.Google Scholar
W. Ding and S.E. Olsen, “Reaction equilibria in the production of manganese ferroalloys”, Metall. Mater. Trans. B
, 27B (1996) 5–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
V.Y. Dashevskii et al., “Solubility of carbon in liquid Mn-Si system”, Dokl. Akad. Nauk
, 345 (1995) 75–78.Google Scholar
R. Ni, Z. Ma and S. Wei, “Thermodynamics of Mn-Fe-C and Mn-Si-C system”, Steel Resarch
, 61 (1990) 113–116.Google Scholar
A. Tanaka, “Activities of manganese in Mn-Fe-C, Mn-Si-C and Mn-Fe-Si-C melts at 1673K”, Trans. JIM
, 21 (1980) 27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
P. Spinat et al., “Characterization of two isotypic phases Mn8
C and Fe8
C”, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sei. Paris Sér. C
, 274 (1972) 1159–1162.Google Scholar
P. Spinat and P. Herpin, “Neutron diffraction studies of the Mn5
SiC phase and the solid solutions (Mn1-x
SiC and (Mn1-x
SiC”, Bull. Soc. fr. Minéral. Crystallogr.
, 99 (1976) 13–20.Google Scholar
J.C. Schuster, “Silicon carbide and transition metals”, Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater.
, 12 (1994) 173–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2014