Modeling of Ladle Metallurgy in Steelmaking

  • Gordon Irons
  • Krishnakumar Krishnapisharody
  • Kevin Graham
Conference paper


Ladle or secondary metallurgy in steelmaking is an essential process step for the production of high-quality steel. Professor David Robertson was a pioneer in the modeling of these processes, in particular gas-metal fluid dynamic interactions and the rates of slag-metal reactions. This is now a highly active area of research, and some of the recent developments in this area will be reviewed.


Modeling steelmaking ladle metallurgy injection slag reactions 


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Copyright information

© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gordon Irons
    • 1
  • Krishnakumar Krishnapisharody
    • 2
  • Kevin Graham
    • 3
  1. 1.Steel Research CentreMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Saarstahl InnovationVolklingenGermany
  3. 3.Strategic & Business PlanningVale, TorontoCanada

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