The Use of Natural Gas for Reduction of Metal Oxides: Constraints and Prospects

  • Oleg Ostrovski
Conference paper

Abstract

Industrial pyrometallurgical processes in ferrous metallurgy are based on carbothermal reduction of metal oxides. Carbothermal reduction of stable oxides requires high temperatures. Low-temperature reduction can be implemented by using methane-containing gas with high carbon activity, or by carbothermal reduction under reduced CO partial pressure. Under standard conditions, methane is thermodynamically unstable above 550 °C and decomposes to solid carbon and hydrogen. At appropriate CH4/H2 ratio and temperature, carbon activity in the methane-containing gas phase can be well above unity relative to graphite, which provides favorable thermodynamic conditions for reduction. To maintain these conditions, the rate of reduction/carburisation should be higher than the rate of solid carbon deposition. The paper discusses reduction of pure manganese and chromium oxides at relatively low temperatures, and constraints in reduction of manganese and chromium ores. Reduction of metal oxides by carbon in hydrogen as an alternative use of natural gas is also discussed.

Keywords

Metal oxides Reduction Natural gas 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    R. Longbottom, O. Ostrovski, J. Zhang, and D. Young, “The Stability of Cementite formed from Hematite and Titanomagnetite Ore,” Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 38 (2007), 175–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. Anacleto, O. Ostrovski, and S. Ganguly, “Solid State Reduction of Manganese Oxides by Methane-Containing Gas,” ISIJ International, 44 (2004), 1480–1487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. Anacleto, O. Ostrovski, and S. Ganguly, “Reduction of Manganese Ores by Methane-Containing Gas,” ISIJ International, 44 (2004), 1615–1622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    N. Anacleto, and O. Ostrovski, “Solid State Reduction of Chromium Oxide by Methane-Containing Slag,” Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 35B (2004), 609–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    N. Anacleto, “Solid State Reduction of Manganese and Chromium Ores by Methane-containing Gas” (PhD Thesis, UNSW, 2002), 144–174.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Kononov, O. Ostrovski, and S. Ganguly, “Carbothermal Reduction of Manganese Oxide in Different Gas Atmospheres,” Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 39B (2008), 662–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Kononov, O. Ostrovski, and S. Ganguly, “Carbothermal Solid State Reduction of Manganese Ores: 2. Non-isothermal and Isothermal Reduction in Different Gas Atmospheres,” ISIJ International, 49 (2009), 1107–1114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. A. R. Dewan, G. Zhang, and O. Ostrovski, “Carbothermal Reduction of Titania in Different Gas Atmospheres,” Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 40B (2009), 62–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. A. R. Dewan, G. Zhang, and O. Ostrovski, “Carbothermal Reduction of a Primary Ilmenite Concentrate in Different Gas Atmospheres,” Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 41B (2010), 182–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    W. J. Rankin and J. R. Wynnycky, “Kinetics of Reduction of MnO in Powder Mixtures with Carbon,” Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 28B (1997), 307–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oleg Ostrovski
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations