Current and Suggested focus on Sustainability in Pyrometallurgy
The production of iron and steel and non-ferrous metals by pyrometallurgical processes will remain a critical element in meeting the demand for materials in both developed and developing nations. Given the important need to reduce and minimise greenhouse gas emissions the technological focus of future pyrometallurgical R&D by universities and industry alike must concentrate on sustainability issues such as improved energy efficiency, recycling and waste minimization. Continued efforts are also needed on process optimization and new process development with a view to reducing capital and operating costs of the new large “mega” plants. Using the academic and industrial backgrounds of the authors, the present paper reviews the current status of R&D in pyrometallurgy in university departments with a particular emphasis on sustainability issues. The role of industry and government laboratories is also reviewed although primarily for developed countries. The paper also includes comments and suggestions on the future requirements for education and R&D in pyrometallurgy in developed countries to maximise sustainability. It is also suggested that future R&D in pyrometallurgy will be even more concentrated in developing countries — most notably China.
KeywordsPyrometallurgy Research Sustainability Education Resource industry
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 5.Report in: http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/, October 2013
- 6.W. Malenbaum, World Demand for Raw Materials in 1985 and 2000, E/MJ Mining Information Services (New York, NY, USA: McGraw Hill, 1978), 126 pages.Google Scholar
- 7.Rio Tinto Chartbook: www.riotinto.com/documents/investorsdatabook/chartbook.pdf
- 8.Rio Tinto-Presentation on Minerals and Diamonds, 12 September, 2012.Google Scholar
- 9.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economies_of_scale — accessed September 2013.
- 10.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainability — - accessed September 2013.
- 11.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainability_metrics_and_indices — Sept 2013.
- 12.YaleCentre for Environmental Law and Policy, http://epi.vale.edu/about/previouswork
- 13.W.J. Rankin, Mineral, Metal and Sustainability-Meeting Future Material Needs, (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: CSIRO Process Science and Eng., 2011) 440 pages.Google Scholar
- 15.Lazard Levelized cost of energy: http://gallery.mailchimp.com/cel7780900c3d223633ecfa59/files/Lazard Levelized Cost_of_Energy_v7.0.1.pdf
- 16.K. Fujimoto and K. Suzuki, “Development of Technology for Advanced Utilization of Hydrogen from By-product Gas of Steelmaking Process”, (Nippon Steel Technical Report, No. 101, November 2012), 203–207.Google Scholar
- 17.www.sae.org/events/green/reference/2010/End%20oP/o20Life%20 Vehicle%20Recycling.pdf
- 18.P. Coursol, P.J. Mackey and C.M. Diaz, “Noranda/Teniente Copper Bath Smelting Process Variations — Impact on Energy Requirements” (Paper presented at the Conference of Metallurgists, Montreal, Canada, October 2011).Google Scholar
- 19.Rio Tinto Sustainability Report: http://www.riotinto.com/sustainabledevelopment2012/
- 20.Rio Tinto Alcan Yarwun 2012 sustainable development report: http://www.riotintoalcan.com/documents/130726_FINAL_2012_Yarwun_SD_and_CF_r eport.pdf
- 21.D. Brennan, Sustainable Process Engineering: Concepts, Strategies, Evaluation and Implementation (Pan Stanford, 2012), 360 pages.Google Scholar
- 22.V. Sahajwalla, “Sustainable Processing”, UNSW Science Research Highlights (2011), University of New South Wales, Sydney, pp. 62–63.Google Scholar
- 24.R. A. Shaw and W J. Rankin, “Research and Innovation in the Mining Industry”, Australasian Mining and Metallurgical Operating Practices, Monograph No. 28, (Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Melbourne, 2013), pp. 201–210.Google Scholar