Application of the Combined Reactors Method for Analysis of Steelmaking Process

  • Simon N. Lekakh
  • D. G. C. Robertson
Conference paper


A new integrated CFD-combined reactors approach is proposed for the description of processes in metallurgical vessels. CFD simulations were used to obtain the melt flow pattern in the vessels (ladle, tundish, and continuous caster mold). From these simulations, the characteristic curves were derived: (i) the residence time distribution curves (RTD) for flow-through systems (at tundish exit or at dendrite coherency surface in the mold) and (ii) the mixing curves for closed systems (ladle). In the next step, the melt flow was represented in a “combined reactors” system consisting of a combination of unit reactors (Plug Flow, Mixer, and Recirculated Volume). An inverse simulation was used to define the volumes of the reactor units and the melt flow rates between them by fitting to the characteristic curves from both methods (CFD and combined reactors). The suggested approach is demonstrated for multiple designs of Ar-stirred ladles, tundish, and SEN. This methodology can be used to enhance traditional post-processing CFD analysis and also as a tool for on-line process control.


Steelmaking Ladle metallurgy Ar-mixing Melt flow Combined reactors 


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Copyright information

© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon N. Lekakh
    • 1
  • D. G. C. Robertson
    • 1
  1. 1.Missouri University of Science and TechnologyRollaUS

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