Advertisement

Ladle Metallurgy Kinetics: Inclusion-Inclusion Reactions

  • P. Chris Pistorius

Abstract

An example is presented to illustrate the joint effect of local reaction equilibria and mass transfer limitations, for reactions during ladle refining of steel. The example relies on some of the kinetic principles that David Robertson has employed to quantify many metallurgical processes. In calcium treatment of alumina inclusions in aluminum-killed steels, solid CaS forms as an intermediate reaction product. During subsequent reaction, CaS disappears and calcium aluminate forms; at the same time, aluminum and sulfur dissolve in the steel. Kinetic analysis shows that the rate of this reaction is not limited by mass transfer of dissolved aluminum and sulfur away from the reacting inclusions. The reaction rate is likely limited by transport of dissolved calcium. This example also illustrates the use of FactSage macros for kinetic modeling.

Keywords

Mass transfer control sulfide inclusions steel ladle metallurgy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    G.M. Faulring, J.W. Farrell and D.C. Hilty, “Steel flow through nozzles: influence of calcium,” I&SM, 7 (2) (1980), 14–20.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. Verma, P.C. Pistorius, R.J. Fruehan, M. Potter, M. Lind and S.R. Story, “Transient inclusion evolution during modification of alumina inclusions by calcium in liquid steel: Part II. Results and discussion,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 42 (2011), 720–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Hino, K. Ito, Thermodynamic data for steelmaking (Sendai, Japan: Tohuku University Press, 2010), 16–17.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. Tiekink, R. Boertje, R. Boom, R. Kooter, and B. Deo, “Aspects of CaFe cored wire injection into steel,” ISSTech 2003 Conf. Proc, Iron and Steel Society, Warrendale, PA, 2003, 157–164.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.I.L. Guthrie, Engineering in Process Metallurgy, second edition (Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press, 1991), 64.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    C.W. Bale, P. Chartrand, S.A. Decterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, R. Ben Mahfoud, J. Melançon, A.D. Pelton and S. Petersen, “FactSage Thermochemical Software and Databases.” Calphad, 26 (2002), 189–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. W. Bale, E. Bélisle, P. Chartrand, S. A. Decterov, G. Eriksson, K. Hack, I.-H. Jung, Y.-B. Kang, J. Melançon, A. D. Pelton, C. Robelin and S. Petersen, “FactSage Thermochemical Software and Databases -Recent Developments,” Calphad, 33 (2009), 295–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.-A. van Ende, Y.-M. Kim, M.-K. Cho, J. Choi and I.-H. Jung, “A kinetic model for the Ruhrstahl Heraeus (RH) degassing process,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, 42 (2011), 477–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Chris Pistorius
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research, Department of Materials Science and EngineeringCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations