Ladle Metallurgy Kinetics: Inclusion-Inclusion Reactions

  • P. Chris Pistorius


An example is presented to illustrate the joint effect of local reaction equilibria and mass transfer limitations, for reactions during ladle refining of steel. The example relies on some of the kinetic principles that David Robertson has employed to quantify many metallurgical processes. In calcium treatment of alumina inclusions in aluminum-killed steels, solid CaS forms as an intermediate reaction product. During subsequent reaction, CaS disappears and calcium aluminate forms; at the same time, aluminum and sulfur dissolve in the steel. Kinetic analysis shows that the rate of this reaction is not limited by mass transfer of dissolved aluminum and sulfur away from the reacting inclusions. The reaction rate is likely limited by transport of dissolved calcium. This example also illustrates the use of FactSage macros for kinetic modeling.


Mass transfer control sulfide inclusions steel ladle metallurgy 


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Copyright information

© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Chris Pistorius
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Iron and Steelmaking Research, Department of Materials Science and EngineeringCarnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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