From Phase Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Modeling to Freeze Linings — The Development of Techniques for the Analysis of Complex Slag Systems

  • Ata Fallah Mehrjardi
  • Peter Hayes
  • Evgueni Jak
Conference paper


Modern analytical tools, such as electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA), are used in experimental characterization of phase equilibria and micro structure s of complex slags. Integrated thermodynamic computer packages, such as FactSage, are used to provide more accurate descriptions of complex slag systems. These advanced methodologies have been applied to characterize dynamic steady state freeze linings in slag systems using submerged cold finger probes at controlled laboratory conditions, establishing the effects of bath chemistry, temperature, heat extraction rate and bulk fluid flow.

It has been found that stationary freeze lining deposit interface temperatures at steady state conditions can be lower than the bulk slag liquidus temperature, and that stable operation below the liquidus is possible. A conceptual framework has been developed to explain the phenomenon and the range of interface temperatures that can be obtained in dynamic steady state conditions. These findings have important implications for the design of freeze linings and possible improvements to high-temperature metallurgical operations.


Phase equilibria Freeze lining 


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Copyright information

© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ata Fallah Mehrjardi
    • 1
  • Peter Hayes
    • 1
  • Evgueni Jak
    • 1
  1. 1.PYROSEARCH, School of Chemical EngineeringThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

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