Comparing Strengthening Mechanisms of Vapor Grown Carbon Fiber vs. Titanium Carbide Reinforced Powder Metallurgy Titanium Metal Matrix Composites

  • Staub Franco
  • Katsuyoshi Kondoh
  • Junko Umeda
  • Hisashi Imai


In this experiment, TILOP-45 commercially pure titanium powder was mixed with vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCF) to form a 200 g 0.5 wt. % VGCF solution. After adding 0.15 grams of cle-safe oil, a rocking mill shook the sample at 60.0 Hz for 2 hours, resulting in satisfactory dispersion of VGCF on the titanium powder surface. The powder solution was compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and hot extruded. The SPS temperature was set to either 800 °C or 1,000 °C and the pressure to 35 kN. Using an extrusion ratio of 13:1 and ram speed of 3 mm/s, the titanium billet, preheated to either 800 °C or 1,000 °C, was deformed to a 10 mm diameter rod. All four permutations of SPS and extrusion temperatures were tested. Microstructure, grain size, hardness, and oxygen/nitrogen/carbon content were observed. Also, a UTS experiment was done followed by SEM observations of the fractured surfaces.


titanium carbon nanotubes powder metallurgy composite material 


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Copyright information

© TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Staub Franco
    • 1
  • Katsuyoshi Kondoh
    • 2
  • Junko Umeda
    • 2
  • Hisashi Imai
    • 2
    • 1
  1. 1.FrontierLab ProgramUniversity of California IrvineIrvineUSA
  2. 2.Joining and Welding Research InstituteOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan

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