Performance Evaluation of Concurrent Data Structures

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9984)


The speed-ups acquired by concurrent programming heavily rely on exploiting highly concurrent data structures. This has led to a variety of coarse-grained and fine-grained locking to lock-free data structures. The performance of such data structures is typically analysed by simulation or implementation. We advocate a model-based approach using probabilistic model checking. The main benefit is that our models can also be used to check the correctness of the data structures. The paper details the approach, and reports on experimental results on several concurrent stacks, queues, and lists. Our analysis yields worst- and best-case bounds on performance metrics such as expected time and probabilities to finish a certain number of operations within a deadline.


Concurrent Data Structures Lock-free Queue Treiber Stack Queue-based Locks Markov Automata (MA) 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Wendelin Serwe for his support in CADP.


  1. 1.
    Baier, C., Daum, M., Engel, B., Härtig, H., et al.: Locks: picking key methods for a scalable quantitative analysis. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 81(1), 258–287 (2015)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cederman, D., Chatterjee, B., Tsigas, P.: Understanding the performance of concurrent data structures on graphics processors. In: Kaklamanis, C., Papatheodorou, T., Spirakis, P.G. (eds.) Euro-Par 2012. LNCS, vol. 7484, pp. 883–894. Springer, Heidelberg (2012). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-32820-6_87 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Deng, Y., Hennessy, M.: On the semantics of Markov automata. Inf. Comput. 222, 139–168 (2013)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dodds, M., Haas, A., Kirsch, C.M.: A scalable, correct time-stamped stack. In: POPL, pp. 233–246. ACM (2015)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Doherty, S., Groves, L., Luchangco, V., Moir, M.: Formal verification of a practical lock-free queue algorithm. In: Frutos-Escrig, D., Núñez, M. (eds.) FORTE 2004. LNCS, vol. 3235, pp. 97–114. Springer, Heidelberg (2004). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-30232-2_7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eisentraut, C., Hermanns, H., Zhang, L.: On probabilistic automata in continuous time. In: LICS, pp. 342–351 (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Garavel, H., Lang, F., Mateescu, R., Serwe, W.: CADP 2011: a toolbox for the construction and analysis of distributed processes. STTT 15(2), 89–107 (2013)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guck, D., Hatefi, H., Hermanns, H., Katoen, J., Timmer, M.: Analysis of timed and long-run objectives for Markov automata. Log. Methods Comput. Sci. 10(3) (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guck, D., Timmer, M., Hatefi, H., Ruijters, E., Stoelinga, M.: Modelling and analysis of Markov reward automata. In: Cassez, F., Raskin, J.-F. (eds.) ATVA 2014. LNCS, vol. 8837, pp. 168–184. Springer, Heidelberg (2014). doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-11936-6_13 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heller, S., Herlihy, M., Luchangco, V., Moir, M., Scherer III, W.N., Shavit, N.: A lazy concurrent list-based set algorithm. Parallel Process. Lett. 17(4), 411–424 (2007)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Herlihy, M., Shavit, N.: The Art of Multiprocessor Programming. Morgan Kaufmann (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mateescu, R., Serwe, W.: Model checking and performance evaluation with CADP illustrated on shared-memory mutual exclusion protocols. Sci. Comput. Program. 78(7), 843–861 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Michael, M.M.: Hazard pointers: safe memory reclamation for lock-free objects. IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 15(6), 491–504 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Michael, M.M., Scott, M.L.: Simple, fast, and practical non-blocking and blocking concurrent queue algorithms. In: PODC, pp. 267–275. ACM (1996)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Neuhäußer, M.R., Katoen, J.-P.: Bisimulation and logical preservation for continuous-time Markov decision processes. In: Caires, L., Vasconcelos, V.T. (eds.) CONCUR 2007. LNCS, vol. 4703, pp. 412–427. Springer, Heidelberg (2007). doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-74407-8_28 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tofan, B., Schellhorn, G., Reif, W.: Formal verification of a lock-free stack with hazard pointers. In: Cerone, A., Pihlajasaari, P. (eds.) ICTAC 2011. LNCS, vol. 6916, pp. 239–255. Springer, Heidelberg (2011). doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-23283-1_16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Software Modelling and Verification GroupRWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Computer Science, Institute of SoftwareChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations