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Fusion of OSINT and Non-OSINT Data

Part of the Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications book series (ASTSA)


Open Source Investigations do not exist in a vacuum. Whether they are law enforcement or intelligence agency driven, private industry or business driven or the work of a private investigator, it is more than likely that the investigations began with some data that is available openly and some that is not. Thus, from the outset the investigation has some open and some closed source information attached to it. As time goes on in the investigation, the police may elicit information from both open and closed source in order to establish the details surrounding the crime and to build their case. This chapter introduces some of the available data sources for developing open source intelligence and for closed source intelligence. It then puts these data sources into context by highlighting some examples and possibilities as to how these different data types and sources may be fused together in order to enhance the intelligence picture. Lastly, it explores the extent to which these potential synergies have already been adopted by LEAs and other companies as well as future possibilities for fusion.


  • Situational Awareness
  • Closed Source
  • Internet Archive
  • Open Source Data
  • Child Sexual Exploitation

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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    See, for example, detailed crime mapping: Sampson and Kinnear (2010).

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    Directive 2006/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the retention of data generated or processed in connection with the provision of publicly available electronic communications services or of public communications networks and amending Directive 2002/58/EC.

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    Joined cases C-293/12 and C-594/12 Digital Rights Ireland Ltd. V Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources and Others and Karntner Landesregierung and Others [2014].

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    Schedule 3 to the Data Protection Act 1998.

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    Schedule 1.

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    Sometimes called the Islamic State (IS) or Islamic State of Syria and the Levant (ISIL).


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Correspondence to Tony Day .

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© 2016 Springer International Publishing AG

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Day, T., Gibson, H., Ramwell, S. (2016). Fusion of OSINT and Non-OSINT Data. In: Akhgar, B., Bayerl, P., Sampson, F. (eds) Open Source Intelligence Investigation. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications. Springer, Cham.

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  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-47670-4

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-47671-1

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)