Open Source Investigations do not exist in a vacuum. Whether they are law enforcement or intelligence agency driven, private industry or business driven or the work of a private investigator, it is more than likely that the investigations began with some data that is available openly and some that is not. Thus, from the outset the investigation has some open and some closed source information attached to it. As time goes on in the investigation, the police may elicit information from both open and closed source in order to establish the details surrounding the crime and to build their case. This chapter introduces some of the available data sources for developing open source intelligence and for closed source intelligence. It then puts these data sources into context by highlighting some examples and possibilities as to how these different data types and sources may be fused together in order to enhance the intelligence picture. Lastly, it explores the extent to which these potential synergies have already been adopted by LEAs and other companies as well as future possibilities for fusion.
- Situational Awareness
- Closed Source
- Internet Archive
- Open Source Data
- Child Sexual Exploitation
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
See, for example, detailed crime mapping: Sampson and Kinnear (2010).
Directive 2006/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 on the retention of data generated or processed in connection with the provision of publicly available electronic communications services or of public communications networks and amending Directive 2002/58/EC. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/NOT/?uri=CELEX:32006L0024&qid=1463735673764.
Joined cases C-293/12 and C-594/12 Digital Rights Ireland Ltd. V Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources and Others and Karntner Landesregierung and Others .
Schedule 3 to the Data Protection Act 1998.
Sometimes called the Islamic State (IS) or Islamic State of Syria and the Levant (ISIL).
Aliprandi C, Arraiza Irujo J, Cuadros M, et al (2014) CAPER: Collaborative information, acquisition, processing, exploitation and reporting for the prevention of organised crime. In: Stephanidis C (ed) HCI international 2014—posters’ extended abstracts, Vol 434, pp 147–152
BBA (2014) Banks team up with government to combat cyber criminals and fraudsters. In: British Banking Association. https://www.bba.org.uk/news/press-releases/banks-team-up-with-government-to-combat-cyber-criminals-and-fraudsters/
BBC (2014) Syria: report shows how foreign fighters use social media. BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-27023952
BBC News (2015) Sara thornton: police may no longer attend burglaries. BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-33676308
Berger J, Morgan J (2015) The ISIS twitter census: defining and describing the population of ISIS supporters on twitter. http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2015/03/isis-twitter-census-berger-morgan
Bowcott O (2015) Rapists use social media to cover their tracks, police warned. In: The guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/jan/28/rapists-social-media-cover-tracks-police-cps-rape
Brewster B, Andrews S, Polovina S et al (2014) Environmental scanning and knowledge representation for the detection of organised crime threats. In: Hernandez N, Jäschke R, Croitoru M (eds) Graph-based representation and reasoning, vol 8577. Springer, Berlin/ Heidelberg, pp 275–280
Brown A (2016) Chief executive’s newsletter—March 2016. In: British Banking Association. https://www.bba.org.uk/news/insight/chief-executives-newsletter-march-2016
Carley KM (2014) ORA: a toolkit for dynamic network analysis and visualization. In: Alhajj R, Rokne J (eds) Encyclopedia of social network analysis and mining. Springer, New York, pp 1219–1228
Court of Justice of the European Union (2014) The court of justice declares the data retention directive to be invalid. http://curia.europa.eu/jcms/upload/docs/application/pdf/2014-04/cp140054en.pdf
Edwards S, Constable D, Scotland N (1999) SO11 open source unit presentation. In: EuroIntel ’99 proceedings of the european intelligence forum “creating a virtual previous next intelligence community in the european region, pp 1–33
European Commission (2015) Schengen information system. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/borders-and-visas/schengen-information-system/index_en.htm
European Commission (2016) ECRIS (european criminal records information system). http://ec.europa.eu/justice/criminal/european-e-justice/ecris/index_en.htm
Freedom of Information Laws by Country. In: Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_information_laws_by_country. Accessed 26 May 2016
Gerber MS (2014) Predicting crime using Twitter and kernel density estimation. Decis Support Syst 61:115–125
Gibson S (2004) Open source intelligence. The RUSI Journal 149:16–22
Gibson H, Akhgar B, Domdouzis K (2015) Using social media for crisis response: The ATHENA system. In: proceedings of the 2nd european conference on social media 2015, ECSM 2015
Home Office (2015a) Nominal criminal records on the police national computer. http://www.gov.uk/government/publications/nominal-criminal-records-on-the-police-national-computer/nominal-criminal-records-on-the-police-national-computer
Home Office (2015b) Child abuse image database. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/child-abuse-image-database
Hribar G, Podbregar I, Ivanuša T (2014) OSINT: a “grey zone”? Int J Intell Counter Intell 27:529–549
Hsiao C-J (2014) Use and characteristics of electronic health record systems among office-based physician practices: United States, 2001–2013. NCHS Data Brief No. 143
Johnson L (2009) Sketches for a theory of strategic intelligence. In: Gill P, Marrin S, Phythian M (eds) Intelligence theory: key questions and debates, pp 33–53
Jouvenal J (2016) The new way police are surveilling you: calculating your threat “score.” The Washington Post
National Crime Agency (2005) Money laundering: the confidentiality and sensitivity of suspicious activity reports (SARs) and the identity of those who make them. http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/publications/suspicious-activity-reports-sars/17-home-office-circular-53-2005-confidentiality-and-sensitivity-of-sars/file
National Crime Agency (2014) Suspicious activity reports (SARs) annual report 2014. http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/publications/suspicious-activity-reports-sars/464-2014-sars-annual-report/file
National Open Source Enterprise (2006) Intellligence community directive number 301. Office of the Director of National Intelligence. https://fas.org/irp/dni/icd/icd-301.pdf
Net Market Share (2016) Desktop search engine market share. http://www.netmarketshare.com/. http://www.netmarketshare.com/search-engine-market-share.aspx?qprid=4&qpcustomd=0
NHS (2011) The care record guarantee. Health and Social Care Information Centre. http://systems.hscic.gov.uk/scr/library/crg.pdf
NHS (2016) Your health and care records. In: NHS Choices. http://www.nhs.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/records/healthrecords/Pages/overview.aspx
Ordannce Survey (2016) OS open data. https://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/opendatadownload/products.html
Sampson F, Kinnear F (2010) Plotting crimes: too true to be good? The rationale and risks behind crime mapping in the UK. Policing A J Policy Pract 4(1):15–27
Senft TM (2013) Microcelebrity and the branded self. In: Hartley J, Burgess J, Bruns A (eds) A companion to new media dynamics. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, pp 346–354
Statista (2016) Leading social networks worldwide as of April 2016, ranked by number of active users (in millions). http://www.statista.com/statistics/272014/global-social-networks-ranked-by-number-of-users/
UK Government (2014) Data retention and investigatory powers act 2014. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2014/27/section/8
UK Financial Intelligence Unit (2015) Introduction to suspicious activity reports (SARs). National Crime Agency. http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/publications/suspicious-activity-reports-sars/550-introduction-to-suspicious-activity-reports-sars-1/file
Vallance C (2014) NHS Care.data information scheme “mishandled.” BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-27069553
Wissgott K (2014) Karl Wissgott, NIPA—witness statement to the leverson inquiry. UK Government Web Archive. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20140122145147/ http://www.levesoninquiry.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/Witness-Statement-of-Karl-Wissgott-taken-as-read.pdf
Editors and Affiliations
© 2016 Springer International Publishing AG
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Day, T., Gibson, H., Ramwell, S. (2016). Fusion of OSINT and Non-OSINT Data. In: Akhgar, B., Bayerl, P., Sampson, F. (eds) Open Source Intelligence Investigation. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47671-1_9
Publisher Name: Springer, Cham
Print ISBN: 978-3-319-47670-4
Online ISBN: 978-3-319-47671-1