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Rice Production in Europe

Abstract

Rice cultivation in Europe is restricted to a few southern European countries. In 2015, the rice-growing acreage of Italy and Spain together comprised around 75 % of a total area of around half a million hectares. The milled rice equivalents in the EU amounted to 0.4 % of the global rice production. Japonica rice varieties are dominating in Europe. Rice is planted in spring and harvested in autumn. All rice fields in Europe are irrigated. Most rice seed is drilled. In some Spanish areas, pregerminated rice is sown by air. Average yields per hectare range between 4 and 8 tons. In some regions 10 tons can easily be achieved. Monocot weeds are prevailing with wild rice, Echinochloa, Cyperus and Heteranthera species being the most frequent representatives. Hydrellia griseola, Chilo suppressalis, Eysarcoris inconspicuus and Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus have to be regarded as the most serious insect problems. Magnaporthe grisea, Cochliobolus miyabeanus and Gibberella fujikuroi are the most widespread disease-causing organisms. A wide range of chemical and biological products is registered for rice protection. For some countries, however, costs for the registration of new products are too high compared with the low acreage so that lacking product innovation becomes a major problem. The acreage of Clearfield rice is continuously growing primarily due to wild rice as an increasing problem. Water shortage is a problem in a few areas in Spain primarily. Irrigated rice provides a habitat for a great number of organisms such as migratory birds and deserves special attention as far as biodiversity is concerned. Greenhouse gas emission and heavy metal concentration in rice fields have been a problem in some areas in the past. New cultivation methods with a reduced water consumption and new rice varieties should, however, contribute to the reduction of these problems.

Keywords

  • European Union
  • Rice Field
  • Wild Rice
  • Rice Cultivation
  • Weedy Rice

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Acknowledgements

This chapter is the result of a common approach with a number of colleagues who assisted us with their generous help and advice from the beginning:

Alberto Boebl and Marco Sobrero from Bayer CropScience S.r.l. (Italy), Francisco Javier Perez Dominguez from Bayer CropScience, S.L. (Spain),

Jean-Claude Mouret, INRA UMR (France), Carlotta Caresana and Marco Romani of the Ente Nazionale Risi (Italy).

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Correspondence to Hansjoerg Kraehmer .

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Kraehmer, H., Thomas, C., Vidotto, F. (2017). Rice Production in Europe. In: Chauhan, B., Jabran, K., Mahajan, G. (eds) Rice Production Worldwide. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47516-5_4

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