In this chapter, we propose a list of metrics grouped by the MAPE-K paradigm for quantifying properties of self-aware computing systems. This set of metrics can be seen as a starting point toward benchmarking and comparing self-aware computing systems on a level-playing field. We discuss state-of-the art approaches in the related fields of self-adaptation and self-protection to identify commonalities in metrics for self-aware computing. We illustrate the need for benchmarking self-aware computing systems with the help of an approach that uncovers real-time characteristics of operating systems. Gained insights of this approach can be seen as a way of enhancing self-awareness by a measurement methodology on an ongoing basis. At the end of this chapter, we address new challenges in reference workload definition for benchmarking self-aware computing systems, namely load intensity patterns and burstiness modeling.
- Virtual Machine
- Intrusion Detection
- Intrusion Detection System
- Load Intensity
- Interarrival Time
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
LIMBO: Load Intensity Modeling Framework. http://descartes.tools/limbo, 2015.
Rodrigo F Almeida, Flávio RC Sousa, Sérgio Lifschitz, and Javam C Machado. On Defining Metrics for Elasticity of Cloud Databases. In Proceedings of the 28th Brazilian Symposium on Databases, 2013.
Enrico Bini, Marko Bertogna, and Sanjoy Baruah. Virtual multiprocessor platforms: Specification and use. In Proceedings of the 2009 30th IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, pages 437–446, 2009.
Robert Birke, Mathias Björkqvist, Lydia Y. Chen, Evgenia Smirni, and Ton Engbersen. (big)data in a virtualized world: volume, velocity, and variety in cloud datacenters. In Proceedings of the 12th USENIX conference on File and Storage Technologies, FAST 2014, Santa Clara, CA, USA, February 17-20, 2014, pages 177–189, 2014.
Robert Birke, Andrej Podzimek, Lydia Y. Chen, and Evgenia Smirni. State-of-the-practice in data center virtualization: Toward a better understanding of VM usage. In 2013 43rd Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), Budapest, Hungary, June 24-27, 2013, pages 1–12, 2013.
Giuliano Casale, Eddy Z. Zhang, and Evgenia Smirni. Kpc-toolbox: Best recipes for automatic trace fitting using markovian arrival processes. Perform. Eval., 67(9):873–896, 2010.
Giuliano Casale, Eddy Z. Zhang, and Evgenia Smirni. Trace data characterization and fitting for markov modeling. Perform. Eval., 67(2):61–79, 2010.
Dean Chandler, Nurcan Coskun, Salman Baset, Erich Nahum, Steve Realmuto Masud Khandker, Tom Daly, Nicholas Wakou Indrani Paul, Louis Barton, Mark Wagner, Rema Hariharan, and Yun seng Chao. Report on Cloud Computing to the OSG Steering Committee. Technical report, April 2012.
Brian F. Cooper, Adam Silberstein, Erwin Tam, Raghu Ramakrishnan, and Russell Sears. Benchmarking cloud serving systems with YCSB. In Proceedings of the 1st ACM symposium on Cloud computing, SoCC ’10, pages 143–154, New York, NY, USA, 2010. ACM.
Thibault Dory, Boris Mejías, Peter Van Roy, and Nam-Luc Tran. Measuring Elasticity for Cloud Databases. In Proceedings of the The Second International Conference on Cloud Computing, GRIDs, and Virtualization, 2011.
Enno Folkerts, Alexander Alexandrov, Kai Sachs, Alexandru Iosup, Volker Markl, and Cafer Tosun. Benchmarking in the Cloud: What It Should, Can, and Cannot Be. In Raghunath Nambiar and Meikel Poess, editors, Selected Topics in Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking, volume 7755 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 173–188. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012.
John E. Gaffney and Jacob W. Ulvila. Evaluation of intrusion detectors: a decision theory approach. In Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pages 50–61, 2001.
Guofei Gu, Prahlad Fogla, David Dagon, Wenke Lee, and Boris Skorić. Measuring intrusion detection capability: an information-theoretic approach. In Proceedings of the 2006 ACM Symposium on Information, computer and communications security (ASIACCS), pages 90–101, New York, NY, USA, 2006. ACM.
R. Gusella. Characterizing the variability of arrival processes with indexes of dispersion. IEEE JSAC, 19(2):203–211, 1991.
Mike Hall and Kevin Wiley. Capacity verification for high speed network intrusion detection systems. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection (RAID), pages 239–251, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2002. Springer-Verlag.
Amin Hassanzadeh and Radu Stoleru. Towards Optimal Monitoring in Cooperative IDS for Resource Constrained Wireless Networks. In Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), pages 1–8, August 2011.
Nikolas Roman Herbst, Samuel Kounev, and Ralf Reussner. Elasticity in Cloud Computing: What it is, and What it is Not (short paper). In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Autonomic Computing (ICAC 2013). USENIX, June 2013.
Nikolas Roman Herbst, Samuel Kounev, Andreas Weber, and Henning Groenda. BUNGEE: An Elasticity Benchmark for Self-adaptive IaaS Cloud Environments. In Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems, SEAMS ’15, pages 46–56, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2015. IEEE Press.
Karl Huppler. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking. chapter The Art of Building a Good Benchmark, pages 18–30. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
Karl Huppler. Benchmarking with Your Head in the Cloud. In Raghunath Nambiar and Meikel Poess, editors, Topics in Performance Evaluation, Measurement and Characterization, volume 7144 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 97–110. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012.
Sadeka Islam, Kevin Lee, Alan Fekete, and Anna Liu. How a Consumer Can Measure Elasticity for Cloud Platforms. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/SPEC International Conference on Performance Engineering, ICPE ’12, pages 85–96, New York, NY, USA, 2012. ACM.
Jóakim V. Kistowski, Nikolas Herbst, Daniel Zoller, Samuel Kounev, and Andreas Hotho. Modeling and extracting load intensity profiles. In Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems, SEAMS ’15, pages 109–119, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2015. IEEE Press.
Anita Komlodi, John R. Goodall, and Wayne G. Lutters. An Information Visualization Framework for Intrusion Detection. In CHI ’04 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, page 1743, New York, NY, USA, 2004. ACM.
Michael Kuperberg, Nikolas Roman Herbst, Joakim Gunnarson von Kistowski, and Ralf Reussner. Defining and Quantifying Elasticity of Resources in Cloud Computing and Scalable Platforms. Technical report, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 2011.
Hennadiy Leontyev, Samarjit Chakraborty, and James H. Anderson. Multiprocessor extensions to real-time calculus. Real-Time Syst., 47(6):562–617, December 2011.
Zheng Li, L. O’Brien, He Zhang, and R. Cai. On a Catalogue of Metrics for Evaluating Commercial Cloud Services. In Grid Computing (GRID), 2012 ACM/IEEE 13th International Conference on, pages 164–173, Sept 2012.
Martina Maggio, Juri Lelli, and Enrico Bin. Analysis of os schedulers with rt-muse. In RTSS@Work (Real-Time Systems Symposium Demo Session), 2015.
Roy A. Maxion and Kymie M.C. Tan. Benchmarking anomaly-based detection systems. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), pages 623–630, 2000.
Yuxin Meng. Measuring intelligent false alarm reduction using an ROC curve-based approach in network intrusion detection. In IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence for Measurement Systems and Applications (CIMSA), pages 108–113, July 2012.
Ningfang Mi, Giuliano Casale, Ludmila Cherkasova, and Evgenia Smirni. Burstiness in multi-tier applications: Symptoms, causes, and new models. In ACM/IFIP/USENIX 9th International Middleware Conference (Middleware’08), Leuven, Belgium, 2008. The prelimilary paper appeared in the HotMetrics 2008 Workshop.
Ningfang Mi, Giuliano Casale, Ludmila Cherkasova, and Evgenia Smirni. Injecting realistic burstiness to a traditional client-server benchmark. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Autonomic Computing, ICAC 2009, June 15-19, 2009, Barcelona, Spain, pages 149–158, 2009.
Ningfang Mi, Qi Zhang, Alma Riska, Evgenia Smirni, and Erik Riedel. Performance impacts of autocorrelated flows in multi-tiered systems. Perform. Eval., 64(9-12):1082–1101, 2007.
M. F. Neuts. Structured Stochastic Matrices of M/G/1 Type and Their Applications. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989.
Object Management Group, Inc. UML Profile for Schedulability, Performance, and Time (SPT), version 1.1. http://www.omg.org/spec/SPTP/1.1/, 2005.
Object Management Group, Inc. UML profile for MARTE: Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems, version 1.1. http://www.omg.org/spec/MARTE/1.1/, 2011.
Dorin Bogdan Petriu and C. Murray Woodside. An intermediate metamodel with scenarios and resources for generating performance models from UML designs. Springer Software and System Modeling (SoSym), 6(2):163–184, 2007.
Martin Roesch. Snort - Lightweight Intrusion Detection for Networks. In Proceedings of the 13th USENIX conference on System Administration (LISA), pages 229–238. USENIX Association, 1999.
Bianca Schroeder, Adam Wierman, and Mor Harchol-Balter. Open versus closed: A cautionary tale. In Proceedings of the 3rd conference on Networked Systems Design & Implementation (NSDI ’06), pages 18–18. USENIX Association, 2006.
Jaydip Sen, Arijit Ukil, Debasis Bera, and Arpan Pal. A distributed intrusion detection system for wireless ad hoc networks. In 16th IEEE International Conference on Networks (ICON), pages 1–6, 2008.
Connie U. Smith and Lloyd G. Williams. Performance Solutions: A practical guide to creating responsive, scalable software. Addison-Wesley, 2002.
Christian Tinnefeld, Daniel Taschik, and Hasso Plattner. Quantifying the Elasticity of a Database Management System. In DBKDA 2014, The Sixth International Conference on Advances in Databases, Knowledge, and Data Applications, pages 125–131, 2014.
Joe Weinman. Time is Money: The Value of “On-Demand”, 2011. (accessed July 9, 2014).
Qi Zhang, Ludmila Cherkasova, and Evgenia Smirni. A regression-based analytic model for dynamic resource provisioning of multi-tier applications. In Fourth International Conference on Autonomic Computing (ICAC’07), Jacksonville, Florida, USA, June 11-15, 2007, page 27, 2007.
S. Zhang, Z. Qian, Z. Luo, J. Wu, and S. Lu. Burstiness-aware resource reservation for server consolidation in computing clouds. IEEE Trnascations on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 27(4):964–977, 2016.
Editors and Affiliations
© 2017 Springer International Publishing AG
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Herbst, N. et al. (2017). Metrics and Benchmarks for Self-aware Computing Systems. In: Kounev, S., Kephart, J., Milenkoski, A., Zhu, X. (eds) Self-Aware Computing Systems. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47474-8_14
Publisher Name: Springer, Cham
Print ISBN: 978-3-319-47472-4
Online ISBN: 978-3-319-47474-8