The Loads Acting on Lumbar Spine During Sitting Down and Standing Up

  • Katarzyna NowakowskaEmail author
  • Marek Gzik
  • Robert Michnik
  • Andrzej Myśliwiec
  • Jacek Jurkojć
  • Sławomir Suchoń
  • Michał Burkacki
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 526)


The paper presents an analysis of the loads acting on lumbar spine during movement of sitting down and getting up from a chair. The study was conducted on a group of 30 people (parents of disabled children) complaining about chronic low back pain. Basing on kinematics, obtained during experiment from APAS system, simulations were performed in the Anybody Modeling System environment. The use of methods, mathematical modeling and static optimization, allowed to determine the magnitude of the loads acting on musculoskeletal system. The results of reactions in the L5-sacrum joint, the muscular forces of erector spinae and the transversus abdominis are significantly correlated with the kinematics of the movement.


Mathematical modeling Loads Muscle strength Anybody Modeling System Lumbar spine 



The study was conducted within 3 Year Healthy Community Project conditioned upon Special Olympics Poland (Olimpiady Specjalne Polska). Grant was approved and financed by Special Olympics Inc. on 25th April 2016.


  1. 1.
    Brulin, Ch., Höög, J., Sundelin, G.: Psychosocial predictors for shoulder/neck and low back complaints among home care personnel. Adv. Physiother. 3, 169–178 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Damsgaard, M., et al.: Analysis of musculoskeletal systems in the AnyBody Modeling System. Simul. Model. Pract. Theory 14, 1100–1111 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dreischarf, M., et al.: In vivo implant forces acting on a vertebral body replacement during upper body flexion. J. Biomech. 48(4), 560–565 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Foster, N.: Barriers and progress in the treatment of low back pain. BMC Med. 9, 108 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gnat, R., Saulicz, E., Kokosz, M., Kuszewski, M.: Biomechanical aspects of modem models of pelvis stability. Polish J. Physiother. 6(4), 280–288 (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gzik, M., Joszko, K., Pieniążek, J.: Badania modelowe w ocenie stanu fizycznego kręgosłupa lędźwiowego po leczeniu kręgozmyku (Analysis of interactions in the human lumbar spine after treatment spondylolisthesis). Modelowanie Inżynierskie, t. 13, nr. 44, 2012, s. 109–116 (in Polish)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hodges, P.W., Richardson, C.A.: Delayed postural contraction of transversus abdominis associated with lower back pain. J. Spinal Disord. 11, 46–56 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hodges, P., Kaigle Holm, A., Holm, S., et al.: Intervertebral stiffness of the spine is increased by evoked contraction of transversus abdominis and the diaphragm: in vivo porcine studies. Spine 28, 2594–2601 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoskins, W., et al.: Low back pain in junior Australian rules football: a cross-sectional survey of elite juniors, non-elite juniors and non-football playing controls. BMC Musculoskel. Disord. 11, 241 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jensen, G.: Biomechanics of the Lumbar intervertebral disk: a review. Phys. Ther. 60, 765–773 (1980)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Knibbe, J.J., Knibbe, N.E.: Static load in the nursing profession; the silent killer. Work 41(1), 5637–5638 (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koblauch, H.: Low back load in airport baggage handlers. Ph.D. Thesis, Denmark (2015)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morlock, M., et al.: Duration and frequency of every day activities in total hip patients. J. Biomech. 34(7), 873–881 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nelson, A., Baptiste, A.S.: Evidence-based practices for safe patient handling and movement. Online J. Issues in Nurs. 9(3), 366–379 (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Panjabi, M.M.: The stabilizing system of the spine. Part II: Neutral zone and stability hypothesis. J. Spinal Disord. 5, 390–397 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Plouvier, S., et al.: Low back pain around retirement age and physical occupational exposure during working life. BMC Public Health 28(11), 268 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rohlmann, A., Pohl, D., Bender, A., Graichen, F., Dymke, J.: Activities of everyday life with high spinal loads. PloS ONE 9(5), e98510 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sato, T., et al.: Low back pain in childhood and adolescence: assessment of sports activities. Eur. Spine J. 20(1), 94–99 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stambolin, D., Eltoukhy, M., Asfaur, S.: Development and validation of a three dimensional dynamic biomechanical lifting model for lower back evaluation for careful box placement. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 54, 10–18 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wilke, H., et al.: New in vivo measurements of pressures in the intervertebral disc in daily life. Spine 24(8), 755–762 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katarzyna Nowakowska
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marek Gzik
    • 1
  • Robert Michnik
    • 1
  • Andrzej Myśliwiec
    • 2
  • Jacek Jurkojć
    • 1
  • Sławomir Suchoń
    • 1
  • Michał Burkacki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biomechatronics, Faculty of Biomedical EngineeringSilesian University of TechnologyZabrzePoland
  2. 2.Department of Kinesitherapy and Special Methods of PhysiotherapyAcademy of Physical Education in KatowiceKatowicePoland

Personalised recommendations