Allergies, with Focus on Food Allergies, in Humans and Their Animals
Hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory, ingested, percutaneously encountered, or injected allergens are classified according to different pathophysiological mechanisms. In the case that food causes the adverse reactions, most typically symptoms along the digestive route (oral allergy syndrome, angioedema, stomachache, vomiting, diarrhea) but also systemic reactions (urticaria/hives, asthma, up to life-threatening anaphylaxis) may occur. On the contrary, food intolerance reactions are disagreeable but do not elicit dangerous systemic reactions. Therefore, it is important to diagnostically differentiate between immune-mediated hypersensitivities and the more harmless food intolerances. Principally, food adverse reactions may occur in all mammalian species.
To single out the suspected food in children and animal patients the allergist is much dependent on collaboration with parents or owners, respectively. For diagnosis of food allergies in humans and animals, evaluation of the allergen-specific serum IgE levels, skin tests, and sometimes elimination diets and oral provocation tests are performed. Intolerances are diagnosed via hydrogen breath test or blood glucose test, in addition to elimination diets.
The offending food allergen must be avoided. Clinical tolerization strategies and experimental immunotherapies have shown promising results. Symptomatic treatment may include the prescription of emergency self-medication in patients at risk for anaphylaxis.
Whereas mostly murine models are used for developing more effective diagnostic and treatment options for food allergies, we propose the systematic inclusion of companion animals as spontaneous food allergy models in examination and diagnosis of allergy.
KeywordsAtopic Dermatitis Food Allergy Food Allergen Food Intolerance Elimination Diet
Adverse food reaction
Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge
High-affinity IgE receptor
Low-affinity IgE receptor
Food-induced atopic dermatitis
The work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund grant SFB F4606-B28.
- Bogh KL, van Bilsen J, Glogowski R, Lopez-Exposito I, Bouchaud G, Blanchard C, Bodinier M, Smit J, Pieters R, Bastiaan-Net S, de Wit N, Untersmayr E, Adel-Patient K, Knippels L, Epstein MM, Noti M, Nygaard UC, Kimber I, Verhoeckx K, O’Mahony L (2016) Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models. Clin Transl Allergy 6:21CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Canonica GW, Ansotegui IJ, Pawankar R, Schmid-Grendelmeier P, van Hage M, Baena-Cagnani CE, Melioli G, Nunes C, Passalacqua G, Rosenwasser L, Sampson H, Sastre J, Bousquet J, Zuberbier T (2013) A WAO – ARIA – GA(2)LEN consensus document on molecular-based allergy diagnostics. World Allergy Organ J 6(1):17CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- European Parliament, Council of the European Union (2011) Regulation on the provision of food information to consumers. Directive 2000/13/EC, vol REGULATION (EU) No 1169/2011. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32011R1169&from=en
- Hobi S, Linek M, Marignac G, Olivry T, Beco L, Nett C, Fontaine J, Roosje P, Bergvall K, Belova S, Koebrich S, Pin D, Kovalik M, Meury S, Wilhelm S, Favrot C (2011) Clinical characteristics and causes of pruritus in cats: a multicentre study on feline hypersensitivity-associated dermatoses. Vet Dermatol 22(5):406–413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jackson KD, Howie LD, Akinbami LJ (2013) Trends in allergic conditions among children: United States, 1997–2011. NCHS Data Brief Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics 121:1–8Google Scholar
- Jarisch R (2013) Histaminintoleranz – Histamin und Seekrankheit, 3rd edn. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
- Pali-Schöll I, Jensen-Jarolim E (2016) The concept of allergen-associated molecular patterns (AAMP). Curr Opin Immunol 42:113-118. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2016.08.004.Google Scholar
- Roth-Walter F, Gomez-Casado C, Pacios LF, Mothes-Luksch N, Roth GA, Singer J, Diaz-Perales A, Jensen-Jarolim E (2014a) Bet v 1 from birch pollen is a lipocalin-like protein acting as allergen only when devoid of iron by promoting Th2 lymphocytes. J Biol Chem 289(25):17416–17421CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Roudebush P, Guilford WG, Jackson HA (2010) Adverse reaction to food. In: Hand MS, Thatcher CD, Remillard RL, Roudebush P, Novotny BJ (eds) Small animal clinical nutrition. Mark Morris Institute, TopekaGoogle Scholar
- Sampson HA, Aceves S, Bock SA, James J, Jones S, Lang D, Nadeau K, Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Oppenheimer J, Perry TT, Randolph C, Sicherer SH, Simon RA, Vickery BP, Wood R, Bernstein D, Blessing-Moore J, Khan D, Lang D, Nicklas R, Oppenheimer J, Portnoy J, Randolph C, Schuller D, Spector S, Tilles SA, Wallace D, Sampson HA, Aceves S, Bock SA, James J, Jones S, Lang D, Nadeau K, Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Oppenheimer J, Perry TT, Randolph C, Sicherer SH, Simon RA, Vickery BP, Wood R (2014) Food allergy: a practice parameter update-2014. J Allergy Clin Immunol 134(5):1016–1025, e1043CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scholl I, Kalkura N, Shedziankova Y, Bergmann A, Verdino P, Knittelfelder R, Kopp T, Hantusch B, Betzel C, Dierks K, Scheiner O, Boltz-Nitulescu G, Keller W, Jensen-Jarolim E (2005) Dimerization of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 is important for its in vivo IgE-cross-linking potential in mice. J Immunol 175(10):6645–6650CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schroeder CR (1933) Cow’s milk protein hypersensitivity in a walrus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 83:810–815Google Scholar
- Schuijs MJ, Willart MA, Vergote K, Gras D, Deswarte K, Ege MJ, Madeira FB, Beyaert R, van Loo G, Bracher F, von Mutius E, Chanez P, Lambrecht BN, Hammad H (2015) Farm dust and endotoxin protect against allergy through A20 induction in lung epithelial cells. Science 349(6252):1106–1110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scott DW, Miller WH, Griffin CE (2001) Muller & Kirk’s small animal dermatology. W.B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Sell S (1996) Immunopathology. Clinical immunology. Mosby Year Book, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
- Stremnitzer C, Manzano-Szalai K, Starkl P, Willensdorfer A, Schrom S, Singer J, Reichart U, Akira S, Jensen-Jarolim E (2014) Epicutaneously applied Der p 2 induces a strong TH 2-biased antibody response in C57BL/6 mice, independent of functional TLR4. Allergy 69(6):741–751CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar