• John Joshua


Tobacco-related diseases exceed globally those caused from the abuse of alcohol, illicit drugs, HIV, homicide, suicide and car accidents combined. The rate of mortality is expected to increase in low- and middle-income countries as the rate of smoking is increasing in those countries as compared with the rate of smoking in high-income countries.There are considerable detrimental social and private costs involved as a consequence of smoking; however such costs are subsidised by society at large as smokers do not pay the full cost.Advertising has glamorized smoking, so that it has become habitual. Unless smoking has become denormalized, it will not be phased out; hence it is advocated that advertising has to be phased out to reduce smoking.


Advertising Smoking disease Social and private costs 


  1. Akerlof, G. A. (1991). Procrastination and obedience. The American Economic Review, 81(2), 1–19.Google Scholar
  2. Becker, G. S., & Murphy, K. M. (1988). A theory of rational addiction. Journal of Political Economy, 98(4), 675–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Reyna, V. F., & Farley, F. (2006). Risk and rationality in adolescent decision making. Implications for theory, practice, and public policy. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 7(1), 1–44.Google Scholar
  4. Stigler, G. J., & Becker, G. S. (1977, (March)). De gustibus non-est disputandum. American Economic Review 67, 76–90.Google Scholar
  5. Winston, G. C. (1980). Addiction and backsliding: A theory of compulsive consumption. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 1(80), 295–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Joshua
    • 1
  1. 1.Deakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations